Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
We present the results of the complex study of ionospheric parameter variations during two geomagnetic storms, which occurred on April 12–15, 2016. The study is based on data from a set of radiophysical and optical instruments. Both the storms with no sudden commencement were generated by high-speed streams from a coronal hole. Despite the minor intensity of the storms (Dst ≥ –55 and –59 nT), we have revealed a distinct ionospheric response to these disturbances. A negative response of electron density and F2-layer critical frequency was observed during the main phase of both the storms. The amplitude of the negative response was higher for the second storm. The period of negative electron density deviations was accompanied by an increase in the peak height, as well as by the downward plasma drift in the evening and night hours, which is not typical of quiet conditions. We have also recorded sharp peaks in the AATR (Along Arc TEC Rate) index and in total electron content noise spikes on average 2–2.5 times. This indicates an intensification of small-scale ionospheric disturbances caused by disturbed geomagnetic conditions and high substorm activity.

ionosphere, GNSS, incoherent scatter radar, geomagnetic storms, ionospheric disturbances
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