We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of mid-latitude aurora from observations in the south of Eastern Siberia during St. Patrick’s severe geomagnetic storm on March 17, 2015. We perform a morphological analysis of characteristics of the observed auroras. A preliminary conclusion is drawn that the analyzed event is the result of the manifestation of mid-latitude auroras of two types (type “d” and SAR arc) and ordinary aurora observed at the northern horizon. The maximum intensity of the dominant emission [OI] at 630.0 nm (~14 kR) allows this mid-latitude aurora to be attributed to the extreme auroras occurring in mid-latitudes, which is second only to the November 20, 2003 superstorm (~19 kR).
geomagnetic storm, mid-latitude aurora, spectrum of mid-latitude aurora, 557.7 and 630.0 nm emissions
1. Beletsky A.B., Tashchilin M.A., Mikhalev A.V., Tatarnikov A.V. Spectral measurements of eigen emission of the night atmosphere with Shamrock SR-303i spectrograph. Sovremennye problemy distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa [Current Problems in Remote Sensing of the Earth From Space]. 2016, vol. 13, iss. 3, pp. 192–197. (In Russian).
2. Danilov A.D. Response of the F region to geomagnetic disturbances (Review). Geliogeofizicheskie issledovaniya [Heliogeophysical Res.]. 2013, vol. 5, pp. 1–33. (In Russian).
3. Earle G.D., Davidson R.L., Heelis R.A., Coley W.R., Weimer D.R., Makela J.J., Fisher D.J., Gerrard A.J., Meriwether J. Low latitude thermospheric responses to magnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 2013, vol. 118, pp. 3866–3876. DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50212.
4. Gonzalez W.D., Tsurutani B.T., Alicia L. Clúa de Gonzalez. Interplanetary origin of geomagnetic storms. Space Sci. Rev. 1999, vol. 88, iss. 3–4, pp. 529–562.
5. Harding B.J., Gehrels T.W., Makela J.J. Nonlinear regression method for estimating neutral wind and temperature from Fabry–Perot interferometer data. Appl. Opt. 2014, vol. 53, pp. 666–673. DOI: 10.1364/AO.53.000666.
6. Ievenko I.B., Alekseev V.N. Substorm and storm effect on SAR arc dymamics. Statistical analysis. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya [Geomagnetism and Aeronomy]. 2004, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 643–654. (In Russian).
7. Ievenko I.B., Parnikov S.G. Comparison of the overlap region of energetic plasma and a plasmapause by the Van Allen Probe data with the SAR arcs ground observations during storm and substorm. Solar-Terrestrial Relations and Physics of Earthquake Precursors. VIII International Conference, September 25–29, 2017, Paratunka, Kamchatskii krai: Abstracts. 2017. pp. 75–76.
8. Kamide Y., Kusano K. No major solar flares but the largest geomagnetic storm in the present solar cycle. Space Weather. 2015, vol. 13, pp. 365–367. DOI: 10.1002/2015SW001213.
9. Khorosheva O.V. Magnetospheric disturbances and dynamics of ionospheric electrojets, auroras, and plasmapause. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya [Geomagnetism and Aeronomy]. 1987, vol. XXVII, no. 5, pp. 804–811. (In Russian).
10. Krakovetsky Yu.K., Loisha V.A., Popov L.N. Chronology of auroras for last millennium. Solnechnye dannye [Solar Data]. 1989, no. 5, pp. 110–115. (In Russian).
11. Mikhalev A.V. Some particulars in observation of mid-latitude airglows and disturbances of the upper atmosphere emissions during magnetic storms in the Eastern Siberia region. Optika atmosfery i okeana [Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics]. 2001, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 970–973. (In Russian).
12. Mikhalev A.V. Seasonal and interannual variations in the [OI] 630 nm atmospheric emission as derived from observations over Eastern Siberia in 2011–2017. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2018, vol. 4, iss. 2, pp. 58–62, DOI: 10.12737/stp-42201809.
13. Mikhalev A.V., Beletsky A.B., Kostyleva N.V., Chernigovskaya M.A. Mid-latitude airglows in the southeast Siberia during strong magnetic storms on October 29–31 and November 20–21, 2003. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya [Cosmic Res.]. 2004, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 616–621. (In Russian).
14. Mikhalev A.V., Beletsky A.B., Kostyleva N.V., Chernigovskaya M.A. Characteristics of mid-latitude airglows during strong magnetic storms in the current solar cycle. Optika atmosfery i okeana [Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics]. 2005, vol. 18, no. 01-02, pp. 155–159. (In Russian).
15. Mikhalev A.V., Podlesny S.V., Stoeva P.V. Night airglow in RGB mode. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2016, vol. 2, iss. 3, pp. 106–114. DOI: 10.12737/22289.
16. Omholt A. Polyarnye siyaniya [Auroras]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1974, 246 p. (In Russian).
17. Podlesny S.V., Mikhalev A.V. Spectrophotometry of mid-latitude airglows observed in the Eastern Siberia region during magnetic storms on February 27, 2014 and March 17, 2015. Mezhdunarodnaya Baikalskaya molodezhnaya nauchnaya shkola po fundamentalnoi fizike. XIV Konferentsiya molodykh uchenykh “Vzaimodeistvie polei i izlucheniya s veshchestvom [Young Scientists’ International School on Fundamental Physics. XV Young Scientists’ Conference “Interaction of Fields and Radiation with Matter”]. Irkutsk, 2015, pp. 175–177. (In Russian).
18. Rassoul H.K., Rochrbaugh R.P., Tinsley B.A. Low-latitude particle precipitation and associated local magnetic disturbance. J. Geophys. Res. 1992, vol. 97, no. A4. pp. 4041–4052.
19. Rassoul H.K., Rohrbaugh R.P., Tinsley B.A., Slater D.W. Spectrometric and photometric observations of low-latitude aurorae. J. Geophys. Res. 1993, vol. 98, no. A5, pp. 7695–7709.
20. Rees M.H., Roble R.G. Observations and theory of the formation of stable auroral red arcs. Res. Geophys. 1975, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 201–242.
21. Shiokawa K., Otsuka Y., Oyama S., Nozawa S., Satoh M., Katoh Y., Hamaguchi Y., Yamamoto Y., Meriwether J. Development of low-cost sky-scanning Fabry—Perot interferometers for airglow and auroral studies. Earth Planet Space. 2012, vol. 63, iss. 11, pp. 1033–1046. DOI: 10.5047/eps.2012.05.004.
22. Truttse Yu.L. Upper atmosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. Polyarnye siyaniya i svecheniya nochnogo neba [Auroras and Night Airglows]. 1973, vol. 20, pp. 5–22. (In Russian).
23. Vasilyev R.V., Artamonov M.F. Beletsky A.B., Zherebtsov G.A., Medvedeva I.V., Mikhalev A.V., Syrenova T.E. Registering upper atmosphere parameters in East Siberia with Fabry—Perot Interfero-meter KEO Scientific “Arinae”. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2017, vol. 3, iss. 3, pp. 61–75. DOI: 10.12737/stp-33201707.
24. Zhang Shunrong. Ionospheric observational campaign study of geospace storms: a scenaro for strong ionosphere and thermosphere coupling during the 2015 St Patrick’s day storm. Second VarSITI General Symposium (VarSITI-2017). Meeting place: Marriot Courtyard City Center, Irkutsk, July 10–15, 2017. VarSITI Abstracts, p. 104.
25. URL: http://wdc.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dst_realtime (accessed May 12, 2018).
26. URL: http://atmos.iszf.irk.ru/ru/data/spectr (accessed May 12, 2018).
27. URL: http://atmos.iszf.irk.ru/ru/data/color (accessed May 12, 2018).
28. URL: http://atmos.iszf.irk.ru/ru/data/keo (accessed May 12, 2018).
29. URL: http://ckp-rf.ru/ckp/3056 (accessed May 12, 2018).