Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Using data from ionosondes, located in East Asia, and total electron content maps, we have made a comparative analysis of ionospheric disturbances associated with the intense geomagnetic storms of December 14–16, 2006 and December 19–22, 2015. These storms had almost equal peak intensities (Dstmin=–162 and –155 nT), but different durations of the main phases (2.5 and 19 hr). At the beginning of both the storms, the region under study was located in the vicinity of the midnight meridian. Ionospheric responses to magnetic storms differed in: i) an increase in the F2-layer critical frequency at subauroral latitudes, caused by an increase in auroral precipitation, during the initial phase of the former storm and the absence of this effect in the latter; (ii) a sharp drop in the critical frequency in the evening hours of the main phase of the latter storm, caused by a shift of the main ionospheric trough to lower latitudes, and the absence of this effect during the former storm; (iii) generation of a short-term positive disturbance observed at subauroral latitudes only in the early recovery phase of the former storm after the negative ionospheric disturbance. During both the storms at middle latitudes there were positive disturbances and wave-like fluctuations of the critical frequency which increased in the vicinity of the dawn meridian. The main causes of the differences between the ionospheric storms are shown to be the differences between the initial conditions of the magnetosphere–ionosphere system and durations of the main phases of magnetic storms.

severe magnetic storms, interplanetary drivers, winter ionospheric storm effects
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