This work is devoted to an experimental study of the possible relationship between earthquakes and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) variations. For the analysis, we use world and regional catalogs of earthquakes and a catalog containing data on the IMF sector structure for several decades. The main methodological technique consists in a comparative analysis of the occurrence rate of earthquakes on the days when Earth crosses the boundary between IMF sectors with the days when Earth is inside the sector. The sign of the IMF radial component is utilized as an indicator of the events on which the oscillation mode of Earth's magnetosphere depends. The sign reversal signals the probable crossing of the boundary between the IMF sectors by Earth, or, in other words, the crossing of the heliospheric current sheet by Earth. The hypothesis about the relationship between IMF variations and seismic activity is that IMF fluctuations, penetrating into the magnetosphere, excite ULF electromagnetic oscillations in the magnetosphere, which, in principle, can affect the physical processes in upcoming earthquake sources. We have found a weak, but statistically significant relationship between IMF variations and seismic activity. We also consider other IMF parameters that control ultra-low-frequency oscillations of the geomagnetic field.
heliosphere, sector structure, magnetosphere, lithosphere, earthquakes, ultra-low-frequency oscillations, magnetoplasticity
1. Adushkin V.V., Ryabova S.A., Spivak A.A., Kharlamov V.A. Response of the seismic background to geomagnetic variations. Doklady Earth Sci. 2012, vol. 444, no. 1, pp. 642–646. DOI: 10.1134/S1028334X12050157.
2. Balasis G., Daglis I.A., Anastasiadis A., Papadimitriou C., Mandea M., Eftaxias K. Universality in solar flare, magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics using Tsallis statistical mechanics. Physica A. 2011, vol. A390, pp. 341–346. DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2010.09.029.
3. Buchachenko A.L. Magnetoplasticity and the physics of earthquakes. Can a catastrophe be prevented? Physics-Uspekhi. 2014, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 92–98. DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.0184.201401e.0101.
4. Buchachenko A.L. Microwave stimulation of dislocations and the magnetic control of the earthquake core. Physics-Uspekhi. 2019, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 46–53. DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2018.03.038301.
5. Dovbnya B.V. On the relation between geomagnetic pulsations and earthquakes. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2009, iss. 13, pp. 82–85. (In Russian).
6. Duma G., Ruzhin Y. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq variation. Haz. Earth Sys. Sci. 2003, vol. 3, no. 3/4, pp. 171–177. DOI: 10.5194/nhess-3-171-2003.
7. Fainberg E.B., Avagimov A.A., Zeigarnik V.A., Vasil’eva T.A. Generation of heat flows in the Earth's interior by global geomagnetic storms. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2004, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 315–322.
8. Fraser-Smith A.C., Bernardi A., McGill P.R., Ladd M.E., Helliwell R.A., Villard O.G., Jr. Low-frequency magnetic field measurements near the epicenter of the Ms 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Geophys. Res. Lett. 1990, vol. 17, pp. 1465–1468. DOI: 10.1029/GL017i009p01465.
9. Guglielmi A.V. Ponderomotive forces in the crust and magnetosphere of the Earth. Fizika Zemli [Physics of the Solid Earth]. 1992, no. 7, pr. 35–39. (In Russian).
10. Guglielmi A.V. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the crust and magnetosphere of the Earth. Physics–Uspekhi. 2007, vol. 50, no. 12, pr.1197–1216. DOI: 10.1070/PU2007v050n12ABEH006413.
11. Guglielmi A.V., Pokhotelov O.A. Geoelectromagnetic Waves. Bristol and Philadelphia, IOP Publ. Ltd., 1996, 402 p.
12. Guglielmi A.V., Potapov A.S. Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on ULF oscillations of the ionospheric resonator. Cosmic Research. 2017, vol. 55, pp. 248–252. DOI: 10.1134/S0010952517030042.
13. Guglielmi A.V., Zotov O.D. Magnetic perturbations before the strong earthquakes. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2012a, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 171–173. DOI: 10.1134/S1069351312010065.
14. Guglielmi A.V., Zotov O.D. The phenomenon of synchronism in the magnetosphere-technosphere-lithosphere dynamical system. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2012b, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 486–495. DOI: 10.1134/S1069351312050035.
15. Guglielmi A.V., Lavrov I.P., Sobisevich A.L. Storm sudden commencements and earthquakes. Solar-Terr. Phys.. 2015a, vol. 1, iss. 1, pp. 98–103. DOI: 10.12737/5694. (In Russian).
16. Guglielmi A.V., Potapov A.S., Dovbnya B.V. The key role of the interplanetary magnetic field in the formation of the oscillation mode of the Earth's magnetosphere. Triggernye effekty v geosistemakh [Trigger effects in geosystems (Moscow, June 16–19, 2015): Proceedings of the 3rd All-Russian workshop-meeting]. Moscow, GEOS Publ., 2015b, pp. 328–334. (In Russian).
17. Guglielmi A.V., Klain B.I., Potapov A.S. North-south asymmetry of ultra-low-frequency oscillations of Earth’s electromagnetic field. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2017, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 26–31. DOI: 10.12737/stp-34201703.
18. Hattori K. ULF Geomagnetic changes associated with large earthquakes. TAO. 2004, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 329–360. DOI: 10.3319/TAO.2004.15.3.329(EP).
19. Hayakawa M. Electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes. IEEJ Trans. Fundam. and Mat. 2001, vol. 121-A, pp. 893–898. DOI: 10.1541/ieejfms.126.211.
20. Kalashnikov A.G. Possibilities of magnetometric methods in solving the issue of earthquake precursors. Trudy Geofizicheskogo instituta AN SSSR [Transactions of Geophys. Institute]. 1964, iss. 25 (152), pp. 162–180. (In Russian).
21. Kasahara K. Mekhanika zemletryasenii [Earthquake Me-chanics]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1985, 264 p. (In Russian). (Eng-lish edition: Kasahara K. Earthquake Mechanics. Cambridge, University Press, 1981. 284 p.)
22. Moore G.M. Magnetic disturbances preceding the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Nature. 1964, vol. 203, no. 4944, pp. 508–509.
23. Nishida A. Geomagnitnyi diagnos magnitosfery [Geomagnetic Diagnosis of the Magnetosphere]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1980, 299 p. (In Russian). (English edition: Nishida A. Geomagnetic Diagnosis of the Magnetosphere. New York, Heidelberg, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1978. 256 p.)
24. Parker E.N. Dinamicheskie protsessy v mezhplanetnoi srede [Dynamical Processes in Interplanetary Medium]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1965, 302 p. (In Russian). (English edition: Parker E.N. Interplanetary Dynamical Processes. New York, Interscience Publ., 1963, 272 p.)
25. Russell C.T., Hoppe M.M. Upstream waves and particles. Space Sci. Rev. 1983, vol. 34, pp. 115–172.
26. Savin M.G., Smagin S.I. Application of MHD generators in geophysical research in the Far East. Vestnik DVO RAN [Vestnik (Bulletin) of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. 2004, no. 2, pp. 129–146. (In Russian).
27. Schekotov A.Yu., Fedorov E.I., Hobara Y., Hayakawa M. ULF magnetic field depression as a possible precursor to the 2011/3.11 Japan earthquake. Telecommunications and Radio Engineering. 2012, vol. 71, iss. 18, pp. 1707–1718. DOI: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v71.
28. Smirnov N.V., Dunin-Borkovsky I.V. Kurs teorii veroyatnostei i matematicheskoi statistiki [Course of probability theory and mathematical statistics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1965, 511 p. (In Russian).
29. Sobisevich L.E., Kanonidi K.K., Sobisevich A.L. Observations of ultra-low-frequency geomagnetic disturbances reflecting the processes of the preparation and development of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Doklady Earth Sci. 2010, vol. 435, pp. 1627–1632. DOI: 10.1134/S1028334X10120160.
30. Tarasov N.T. Variation of seismicity of the Earth crust by electric impact. Doklady Rossiiskoi akademii nauk [Transactions (Doklady) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Earth Science Sections]. 1997, vol. 353, no. 4, pp. 542–545]. (In Russian).
31. Tarasov N.T. On the influence of solar activity on the seismicity of the Earth. Triggernye effekty v geosistemakh [Trigger effects in geosystems (Moscow, June 6–9, 2017): Proceedings of the IV All-Russian conference with international participation]. Moscow, GEOS Publ., 2017, pp. 356–365. (In Russian).
32. Tarasov N.T., Tarasova N.V., Avagimov A.A., Zeigarnik V.A. The effect of high energy electromagnetic pulses on seismicity in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Volcanology and Seismology. 2000, vol. 21, no. 4-5, pp. 627–639.
33. Tarasov N.T., Tarasova N.V., Avagimov A.A., Zeigarnik V.A. The effect of electromagnetic impacts on seismicity over the Bishkek geodynamic test ground. Geologiya i geofizika [Geology and Geophysics]. 2001, no. 10, pp. 1641–1649. (In Russian).
34. Tobolzhina V.A. Volokonnaya struktura mezhplanetnogo magnitnogo polya [Fiber structure of the interplanetary magnetic field: Final qualifying work]. Tomsk, Tomsk State University, 2016, 80 p. (In Russian).
35. Velikhov E.P., Volkov Yu.M. Perspektiva razvitiya impul’snoi MGD-energetiki i eye primenenie v geologii i geofizike [Prospects for the development of pulsed MHD energy and its application in geology and geophysics: Preprint no. 3436/6, Institute of Atomic Energy]. Moscow, 1981, 28 r. (In Russian).
36. Zakrzhevskaya N.A., Sobolev G.A. On the seismicity effect of magnetic storms. Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth. 2002, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 249–261.
37. Zakrzhevskaya N.A., Sobolev G.A. The influence of the sudden-commencement magnetic storms on seismicity in different regions. Vulkanologiya i seismologiya [Volcanology and Seismology]. 2004, no. 3, pp. 63–75. (In Russian).
38. Zotov O.D., Guglielmi A.V., Sobisevich A.L. On magnetic precursors of earthquakes. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2013, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 882–889. DOI: 10.1134/S1069351313050145.
39. Zotov O.D., Lavrov I.P. On the relationship of the Earth’s seismicity with the parameters of the interplanetary magnetic field. Sredneshyrotnye geofizicheskie observatorskie nabludeniya [Mid-latitude Geophysical Observatory Observations: Proceedings of the scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Valeria Alekseevna Troitskaya and the 60th anniversary of the Borok Geophysical Observatory (Borok, October 16–19, 2017)]. Yaroslavl, 2017, pp. 25–26. (In Russian).
40. URL: http://www.izmiran.ru/stp/polar/SSIMF/?ASCII (accessed January 7, 2017).
41. URL: http://www.isc.ac.uk (accessed February 26, 2012).
42. URL: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/epic/epic_global.html (accessed May 4, 2017).
43. URL: http://www.ncedc.org (accessed January 7, 2016).
44. URL: http://www.data.scec.org (accessed January 7, 2016).
45. URL: http://www.gein.noa.gr (accessed March 25, 2010).