MOBBING AND BULLYING AS OCCUPATIONAL STRESS FACTORS
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
An analysis of foreign and domestic publications related to problems of mobbing and bullying as working environment factors to which it wasn´t been paid attention until recently has been presented in this review. Seven summarized mobbing types which reduce the level and quality of work have been identified: institutional arrangement mobbing, social isolation mobbing, mobbing of attacks to victim’s personal life, victim mood mobbing, physical violence mobbing, verbal aggression and rumors mobbing. Administrative, functional and psychological factors which are the causes of mobbing and bullying as manifestations of destructive behavior at work places have been shown. A comparative analysis of mobbing and bullying occurrence frequency in different countries and among different categories of employees has been carried out. Based on a lot of questionnaires data analysis it has been found that the most frequently mobbing and bullying occurrences in the public sector of economy in comparison with the private one, they are observed in pedagogical and health care systems too. It has been shown that mobbing and bullying are stress factors that can lead to employees’ work capacity deterioration, serious physical and mental health disorders, mainly similar to typical post-traumatic stress disorder. In extreme cases mobbing and bullying can lead to serious diseases, professional unsuitability and early disability, social isolation and even suicide, being thus an important safety assurance factor for modern forms of work. In order to solve the mobbing problem through legislation, some European countries have adopted new laws that prevent the occurrence of these phenomena, protecting and ensuring the safety of employees in their workplaces, including an emotional component of health at work. In Russia it is necessary to develop adequate administrative, psychological and medical measures for prevention and diagnosis of mobbing and bullying at workplaces.

Keywords:
mobbing, bullying, production-related stress, working environment, health’s disorders, labor psychology.
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1. Введение в проблему

Понятие «моббинг» впервые появилось в научной литературе в 1978 г., когда шведский психолог Х.Лейман охарактеризовал его как «психологический террор» в рабочей среде, который проявляется в недружественном и неэтичном поведении, осуществляющемся систематически одним или несколькими лицами против человека, который оказывается в беспомощном состоянии и становится жертвой различных гнетущих и персекуторных актов [1]. Позднее появилось понятие «буллинг» — агрессивное поведение, выражающееся в злонамеренном преследовании, жестокости, попытках оскорбления и унижения работника, подрыве его репутации и т. п. Буллинг можно рассматривать как крайнее проявление  моббинга. В силу схожести данных понятий имеет смысл рассматривать феномены моббинга (буллинга) в целом, как комплекс организационных взаимоотношений, выражающихся в той или иной форме психологического притеснения.

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