Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
This paper provides insight into heliospheric processes and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) modulation occurring due to the presence of two branches of solar activity in this solar layer. According to the topology of solar magnetic fields, these branches are called toroidal (active regions, sunspots, flares, coronal mass ejections, etc.) and poloidal (high-latitude magnetic fields, polar coronal holes, zonal unipolar magnetic regions, etc.). The main cause of different manifestations of the two branches on the solar surface and in the heliosphere — the layer at the base of the heliosphere in which the main energetic factor is the magnetic field — is formulated. In this case, the magnetic fields of the poloidal branch, which have a larger scale but a lower intensity, gain an advantage in penetrating into the heliosphere. A connection is shown between the poloidal branch and the heliospheric characteristics (solar wind velocity field, size of the heliosphere, form of the heliospheric current sheet, regular heliospheric magnetic field and its fluctuations) that, according to modern notions, determine GCR propagation in the heliosphere.

galactic cosmic rays, heliosphere, GCR modulation, toroidal and poloidal branches of solar activity
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