Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Using vertical sounding data obtained by the Irkutsk digisonde DPS-4 from 2003 to 2016, we have studied the frequency of occurrence of the F1 layer in winter conditions. The frequency of occurrence of the F1 layer in December–January is shown to be more than twice lower than that in February at any level of magnetic activity. At moderate and low solar activity under quiet geomagnetic conditions, the appearance of F1 layer in midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere may be caused by active thermodynamic processes, which lead to transformation or destruction of the circumpolar vortex at heights of the middle atmosphere. Such global dynamic changes occurring in the winter strato-mesosphere are often associated with sudden stratospheric warming events, which are accompanied by increased generation of atmospheric waves of various scales. These wave disturbances can propagate upward to the heights of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere, carrying a significant vertical flow of energy and causing variations in the composition, thermodynamic parameters of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere.

ionosphere, low atmosphere, stratospheric warming, F1 layer
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