Language Standardization of Modern English Language: Errors or Communicative Innovations?
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The article discusses the current changing of linguistic norms in English as a lingua franca of global communication nowadays. It aims at both determining the causes of language deviations and analyzing language errors as well as their impact on the effectiveness of the English language communication. Based on the analysis of abundant empirical material, we prove that language innovations are caused by the immanent structural, functional, and pragmatic variability / instability of the English language; they are also associated with cognitive and sociocultural evolution. The research methodology includes: a corpus-based analysis of speech errors; interpretative, context and discourse analyses of the sources of language errors, as well as their distribution, adaptation, habitualization, legitimization, and regulation. We discuss the degree of influence of these processes on native and non-native speakers. Special attention is paid to multilingual interference and the Internet language creation. The findings show that it is impossible to separate language errors from language innovations today. Such conventional governing principles of error normalization as credibility, codification, and approval are still playing an important role while the demographic and geographic principles are losing their significance. The Internet communication often proliferates error normalization processes, which result in evaluating (accepting or rejecting) any innovation according to the principle of “virtual validity”. In conclusion, the English language status as a language of the international communication significantly transforms its norms, rules, and traditions. We think, this will not worsen it, but allow people of different nationalities to communicate in English more effective using their “English variant”, which is the most adapted one to their cognitive, functional and pragmatic needs.

English language, linguistic norm, linguistic variation, language standardization, language errors, neologisms, Internet communication

1. Kochetova, M.G. Variativnost' v sovremennom angliyskom yazyke : Edin-stvo i mnozhestvennost' form [Tekst] / Kochetova M.G. // Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki. – 2015. – № 4. Ch. 2. – S. 103-108.

2. Nikolaeva, N.N. Analiz redutsirovannykh form v pis'mennoy kommunika-tsii studentov na angliyskom yazyke [Tekst] / N.N. Nikolaeva // Aktual'nye problemy lingvistiki i lingvodidaktiki inostrannogo yazyka delovogo i professional'nogo obshcheniya : sb. mater. VIII Mezhd. nauch. konf. Moskva, RUDN, 2018 g. – Moskva, 2018. – S. 116-119.

3. Nikolaeva, N.N. Variativnost' angloyazychnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy termi-nologii kak otrazhenie dinamiki nauchnykh znaniy (kognitivnyy podkhod) [Tekst] / N.N. Nikolaeva // Vestn. Mosk. Gos. Obl. un-ta. Ser. Lingvistika. – 2016. – № 3. – S. 200-209.

4. Nikolaeva, N.N. Funktsionirovanie neopredelenno-lichnykh mestoimeniy somebody i someone sovremennom angliyskom yazyke: biokognitivnyy pod-khod [Elektronnyy resurs] / N.N. Nikolaeva // Gumanitarnyy vestnik MGTU im. N.E. Baumana. Ser. Yazykoznanie. – 2014. – № 2(16). – S. 2-23. URL:

5. Yazykoznanie. Bol'shoy entsiklopedicheskiy slovar' [Tekst] / pod red. V. N. Yartseva. – M. : Bol'shaya rossiyskaya entsiklopediya, 2000. – 688 s.

6. Birnstengel, G. Is Trump making older people look bad? [Electronic resource] / G. Birnstengel. – 2017. – Dec 13. – Available at:

7. Butler, R. N. Age-ism: Another form of bigotry [Text] / R. N. Butler // The Gerontologist. – 1969. – No 9(4). – P. 243-246.

8. COCA [Electronic resource] / The Corpus of Contemporary American English. Available at: (accessed data: 10.02.2019).

9. Crystal, D. A Defence of Grammar [Text] / D. Crystal // Times Educational Supplement. – 2016. – 3 June. – P. 26-32.

10. Crystal, D. Language and the Internet [Text] / D. Crystal. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004. – 272 p.

11. English Language Learners Stack Exchange [Electronic resource] // Website. – Available at: /questions/124904/ (accessed data: 10.02.2019).

12. English language spelling reform [Electronic resource] // Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Available at: (accessed data: 10.02.2019).

13. Farrell, T.C., Martin, S. To Teach Standard English or World Englishes? A Balanced Approach to Instruction [Text] / T.C. Farrell, S. Martin // English Teaching Forum. – 2009. – No 2. – P. 2-9.

14. Harrison, K.D. When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World’s Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge [Text] / K.D. Harrison. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. – 304 p.

15. Huddleston, R., Pullum, G. Students’ Introduction to English Grammar [Text] / R. Huddleston, G. Pullum. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2005. – 208 p.

16. Hult, C.A. The Handy English grammar answer book [Text] / C.A. Hult. – Detroit : Visible Ink Press, 2016. – xii, 419 p.

17. Kirkpatrick, A. World Englishes: Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching [Text] / A. Kirkpatrick. – Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 257 p.

18. Michael K. Languages after Brexit: how the UK speaks to the world [Text] / K. Michael (eds.). – UK : Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. –277 p.

19. Makino, S. Promotional Flyer for a New Book [Text] / S. Makino. – UK : Princeton, 2004. – 201 p.

20. Milroy, J., Milroy L. Authority in Language. Investigating Language Prescription and Standardization [Text] / J. Milroy, L. Milroy. – UK : London, 1985. – 169 p.

21. Paton, G. University students cannot spell [Electronic resource] / G. Paton // Daily Telegraph. – 2008. – August 6. – Available at:

22. Personal City [Electronic resource] // Website. – Available at: (accessed data: 10.02.2019).

23. Reverso Context [Electronic resource] // Website. – Available at: (accessed data: 10.02.2019).

24. Seargeant, P., Swann J. English in the world: history, diversity, change [Text] / P. Seargeant, J. Swann (eds). – UK : Routledge, 2012. – 389 p.

25. The Routledge Handbook of Language and Digital Communication [Text] / A. Georgakopoulou, T. Spilioti (eds). Series : Routledge Handbooks in Applied Linguistics. – UK : Routledge, 2016. – 448 p.

26. Thurlow, C. Generation Txt? The sociolinguistics of young people’s text-messaging [Electronic resource] // Discourse Analysis Online, 2003. – Available at: (accessed data: 10.02.2019).

27. Trudgill, P., Hannah J. International English : A guide to varieties of standard English [Text] / P. Trudgill, J. Hannah. – London : Hodder Education, 2013. – xiv, 160 p.

Login or Create
* Forgot password?