Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
In the interaction of cosmic rays (CRs) with Earth’s atmosphere, neutrons are formed in a wide range of energies: from thermal (E≈0.025 eV) to ultrarelativistic (E>1 GeV). To detect and study CRs, Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI) uses a complex monitoring system containing detectors of various configurations. The standard neutron monitor (NM) 18-NM-64 is sensitive to neutrons with energies E>50 MeV. The lead-free section of the neutron monitor (BSRM) detects neutrons with energies E≈(0.1÷1) MeV. Also, for sharing with standard detectors, the Apatity NM station has developed and installed a neutron spectrometer with three energy channels and a particle reception angle of 15 degrees. The configuration of the device makes it possible to study the degree of anisotropy of the particle flux from different directions. We have obtained characteristics of the detector (response function and particle reception angle), as well as geometric dimensions through numerical simulation using the GEANT4 toolkit [Agostinelli et al., 2003]. During operation of the device, we collected database of observations and received preliminary results.

cosmic rays, nuclear physics, Monte Carlo method, particle detection
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