We study the level of total electron content (TEC) disturbance in ionospheric mid-latitude and high-latitude regions, which occurred during 2013. TEC behavior is calculated using data from two GPS stations: MOND (Mondy) and NRIL (Norilsk). TEC variations are estimated from dual-frequency phase measurements for all radio signal paths. We analyze the TEC variations in two time ranges: 10 and 40 min. These ranges correspond to medium- and large-scale ionospheric disturbances respectively. The TEC disturbance level is characterized using a special index WTEC. It allows us to receive multi-day continuous series of average TEC variation intensity. We reveal that at high latitudes WTEC variations correlate well with AE ones. The correlation between WTEC and Dst variations is much lower. The minimum level of TEC disturbance is independent of the season in the Arctic region; diurnal WTEC variations are more pronounced for medium-scale ionospheric disturbances than for large-scale ones. At mid-latitudes, the WTEC variation concurs with Dst and Kp variations only during strong magnetic storms. The minimum level of TEC disturbance is higher in summer than in winter. At middle latitudes, the sunset terminator generates gravity waves. In the Arctic region, terminator-induced waves are not observed.
GPS, ionosphere, total electron content, Arctic region, geomagnetic variations
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