Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an erect herbaceous annual plant with flat seeds. It is one of the oldest cultivated oilseed plants in the world, especially popular in Africa and Asia. The present research objective was to describe a sesame protein isolate, i.e., its amino acid profile, functional and physicochemical properties, zeta potential, and hydrodynamic diameter. The surface charge and hydrodynamic diameter in aqueous solutions were obtained for standard sesame seeds, defatted sesame seeds, and the sesame protein isolate. Defatted sesame seeds yielded the following optimal parameters: salt concentration – 0.6 M, pH – 7, iso-electric point (pI) – 4. The sesame protein isolate was rich in methionine content, which is rare in other plant proteins, but its lysine content was lower than in other isolates. The sesame protein isolate displayed almost identical zeta potential profiles with its pH. The decreasing pH increased the zeta values gradually from the lowest negative value to the highest positive value. The zeta potentials of standard and defatted sesame seeds at pH 7 were –23.53 and –17.30, respectively. The hydrodynamic diameter of the sesame protein isolate (0.33 μm) was smaller than that of sesame seeds (2.64 μm) and defatted sesame seeds (3.02 μm). The sesame protein isolate had a water holding capacity of 1.26 g/g and an oil holding capacity of 3.40 g/g. Its emulsifying properties looked as follows: emulsion capacity – 51.32%, emulsion stability – 49.50%, emulsion activity index – 12.86 m2/g, and emulsion stability index – 44.96 min, respectively. These values are suitable for the sesame protein isolate and are consistent with the literature. The sesame protein isolate was a good source of protein (88.98%). Using sesame proteins as functional components can be an important basis for better knowledge of the relationship between electrical charge interactions in food matrices and the structure, stability, shelf life, texture, structural and functional properties of food. Research prospects include the effects of sesame protein isolates on various food systems.
Sesame protein isolate, amino acid profile, zeta potential, functional properties, solubility
1. FAOSTAT [Internet]. [cited 2021 Sep 07]. Available from: https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home
2. Fasuan TO, Omobuwajo TO, Gbadamosi SO. Optimization of simultaneous recovery of oil and protein from sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2018;42(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13341
3. Achouri A, Nail V, Boye JI. Sesame protein isolate: Fractionation, secondary structure and functional properties. Food Research International. 2012;46(1):360–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.01.001
4. Onsaard E. Sesame proteins. International Food Research Journal. 2012;19(4):1287–1295.
5. Cano-Medina A, Jiménez-Islas H, Dendooven L, Herrera RP, González-Alatorre G, Escamilla-Silva EM. Emulsifying and foaming capacity and emulsion and foam stability of sesame protein concentrates. Food Research International. 2011;44(3):684–692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.015
6. Sharma L, Singh C, Sharma HK. Assessment of functionality of sesame meal and sesame protein isolate from Indian cultivar. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2016;10(3):520–526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-016-9330-3
7. Saini CS, Sharma HK, Sharma L. Thermal, structural and rheological characterization of protein isolate from sesame meal. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2018;12(1):426–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-017-9655-6
8. Gómez-Arellano A, Jiménez-Islas H, Castrejón-González EO, Medina-Torres L, Dendooven L, Escamilla-Silva EM. Rheological behaviour of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein dispersions. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2017;106:201–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2017.09.010
9. Onsaard E, Pomsamud P, Audtum P. Functional properties of sesame protein concentrates from sesame meal. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry. 2010;3(4):420–431.
10. Fathi N, Almasi H, Pirouzifard MK. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on morphological and physicochemical properties of sesame protein isolate based edible films. Food Hydrocolloids. 2018;85:136–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.07.018
11. Saatchi A, Kiani H, Labbafi M. Structural characteristics and functional properties of sesame protein concentrate – maltodextrin conjugates. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2021;15(1):457–465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00655-2
12. Saatchi A, Kiani H, Labbafi M. A new functional protein-polysaccharide conjugate based on protein concentrate from sesame processing by-products: Functional and physico-chemical properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019;122:659–666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.122
13. Yuzer MO. Obtaining isolate from sesame proteins and production of nanofibers by electrospinning method: Its effects on oil separation in sesame paste. Ondokuz Mayıs University; 2021.
14. Official methods of analysisTM, 21st edition. Arlington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2019.
15. Bilgin Ö, Çarlı U, Erdogan S, Maviş ME, Göksu Gürsu G, Yılmaz M. Determination of amino acids composition in different tissues of whiting, Merlangus merlangus euxinus (Nordmann, 1840) from the Black Sea, Turkey. Alinteri Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2019;34(2):142–147. https://doi.org/10.28955/alinterizbd.665228
16. Wang H, Hao L, Wang P, Chen M, Jiang S, Jiang S. Release kinetics and antibacterial activity of curcumin loaded zein fibers. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017;63:437–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.09.028
17. El Halal SLM, Fonseca LM, do Evangelho JA, Bruni GP, dos Santos Hackbart HC, da Rosa Zavareze E, et al. Electrospun ultrafine fibers from black bean protein concentrates and polyvinyl alcohol. Food Biophysics. 2019;14(4):446–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-019-09594-y
18. Gundogan R, Can Karaca A. Physicochemical and functional properties of proteins isolated from local beans of Turkey. LWT. 2020;130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109609
19. Ngui SP, Nyobe CE, Bakwo Bassogog CB, Nchuaji Tang E, Minka SR, Mune Mune MA. Influence of pH and temperature on the physicochemical and functional properties of Bambara bean protein isolate. Heliyon. 2021;7(8). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07824
20. You Y, Yang L, Chen H, Xiong L, Yang F. Effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the functional and structural properties of soybean protein isolate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(7):2306–2315. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07337
21. Gharby S, Harhar H, Bouzoubaa Z, Asdadi A, El Yadini A, Charrouf Z. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of seeds and oil of sesame grown in Morocco. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2017;16(2):105–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2015.03.004
22. Cano-Sarmiento C, Téllez-Medina DI, Viveros-Contreras R, Cornejo-Mazón M, Figueroa-Hernández CY, García-Armenta E, et al. Zeta potential of food matrices. Food Engineering Reviews. 2018;10(3):113–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-018-9176-z
23. Tang C-H, Sun X. A comparative study of physicochemical and conformational properties in three vicilins from Phaseolus legumes: Implications for the structure – function relationship. Food Hydrocolloids. 2011;25(3):315–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.06.009
24. Rahmati NF, Koocheki A, Varidi M, Kadkhodaee R. Introducing Speckled sugar bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) protein isolates as a new source of emulsifying agent. Food Hydrocolloids. 2018;79:498–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.01.022
25. Mozafarpour R, Koocheki A, Milani E, Varidi M. Extruded soy protein as a novel emulsifier: Structure, interfacial activity and emulsifying property. Food Hydrocolloids. 2019;93:361–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2019.02.036
26. Fasuan TO, Gbadamosi SO, Omobuwajo TO. Characterization of protein isolate from Sesamum indicum seed: In vitro protein digestibility, amino acid profile, and some functional properties. Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;6(6):1715–1723. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.743
27. Yang K, Xu T-R, Fu Y-H, Cai M, Xia Q-L, Guan R-F, et al. Effects of ultrasonic pre-treatment on physicochemical properties of proteins extracted from cold-pressed sesame cake. Food Research International. 2021;139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109907
28. Lawal SO, Idowu AO, Malomo SA, Badejo AA, Fagbemi TN. Effect of toasting on the chemical composition, functional and antioxidative properties of full fat and defatted sesame (sesamum indicum L) seed flours. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology. 2021;19(1):18–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2019.1681333
29. Lu X, Sun Q, Zhang L, Wang R, Gao J, Jia C, et al. Dual-enzyme hydrolysis for preparation of ACE-inhibitory peptides from sesame seed protein: Optimization, separation, and identification. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2021;45(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13638
30. Gorissen SHM, Crombag JJR, Senden JMG, Waterval WAH, Bierau J, Verdijk LB, et al. Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates. Amino Acids. 2018;50(12):1685–1695. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-018-2640-5
31. Fathi N, Almasi H, Pirouzifard MK. Sesame protein isolate based bionanocomposite films incorporated with TiO2 nanoparticles: Study on morphological, physical and photocatalytic properties. Polymer Testing. 2019;77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2019.105919
32. Sharma L, Singh C. Sesame protein based edible films: Development and characterization. Food Hydrocolloids. 2016;61:139–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.05.007
33. López-Monterrubio DI, Lobato-Calleros C, Alvarez-Ramirez J, Vernon-Carter EJ. Huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.) protein: Composition, structure, physicochemical and functional properties. Food Hydrocolloids. 2020;108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.106043
34. Müsellim E, Tahir MH, Ahmad MS, Ceylan S. Thermokinetic and TG/DSC-FTIR study of pea waste biomass pyrolysis. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2018;137:54–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.03.05
35. Swain SN, Rao KK, Nayak PL. Biodegradable polymers. III. Spectral, thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of cross-linked furfural – soy protein concentrate. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2004;93(6):2590–2596. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.20729