АНАЛИЗ ПОДХОДОВ К ОПИСАНИЮ ПРОЦЕССОВ РАЗВИТИЯ СОВРЕМЕННОГО МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
Рассмотрены различные подходы к описанию процессов развития современного менеджмента, включая: научные школы, концепции и этапно-фазовые подходы. Особое внимание уделено анализу авторского пятифазного подхода к описанию процессов развития современного менеджмента, который позволяет описать смену концепций менеджмента, соответствующих малым циклам экономической активности Клементе Жугляра со средней продолжительностью около десяти лет (ориентировочное время доминирования конкретной концепции менеджмента), закономерно повторяющих свои черты в рамках больших циклов экономической активности Николая Кондратьева со средней продолжительностью около пятидесяти лет (ориентировочное время доминирования конкретного технологического уклада). Проанализирована расширенная до настоящего времени классификация научных школ и концепций современного менеджмента. В рамках авторского пятифазного подхода к описанию процессов развития современного менеджмента представлены результаты описания этапов развития концепций менеджмента в период с 1870-х по 2040-е годы в рамках концептуально-фазового подхода.

Ключевые слова:
анализ, подходы, описание, процессы развития, современный менеджмент
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Introduction

The sphere of management of socio-economic systems (organizations and enterprises) is rightfully considered the same age as humanity, and was widely used even in the primitive communal system for building housing, obtaining food, maintaining fire, etc. [140]
But before separating management as an independent area of knowledge into a separate science, mankind for thousands of years, bit by bit, accumulated experience in management [126].

The history of the development of management science shows that the theoretical comprehension of management processes proceeded unevenly. Moreover, success in the development of management theory has always depended on the development of industry, other areas related to management, such as mathematics, engineering, psychology, sociology, cybernetics, etc. As one of the founders of scientific management F. Taylor noted: this is evolution, not an invention ”[14].

This paper presents the results of research by the authors of various approaches to describing the development of modern management (including scientific schools, management concepts and stage-phase approaches), which have not been reflected in well-known literary sources, focusing on the description of approaches to management development at the turn of the 1980s - 1990s [157].

The approaches considered in this study formed the basis for the development of not only management theory [126], but also its applied directions, to which today they can be attributed [126, 128, 144, 153]:

1) administrative management,
2) animation management,
3) anti-crisis management,
4) brand management,
5) gender management,
6) state and municipal administration,
7) investment management,
8) innovation management,
9) information technology management,
10) research of control systems,
11) communication management,
12) coordination management,
13) logistics,
14) marketing,
15) international management,
16) methods of making management decisions,
17) knowledge management,
18) management of the organization,
19) sales management,
20) territory management,
21) motivational management,
22) general management,
23) production management,
24) risk management,
25) event management,
26) strategic management,
27) time management,
28) technology management,
29) management of intellectual property,
30) quality management,
31) management consulting,
32) property management,
33) personnel management,
34) project management,
35) financial management,
36) environmental management,
37) legal management,
38) GR-management,
39) PR management,
40) Yield - management.

The presented results are a generalization of well-known studies [1-24, 26-95, 166-171], as well as the author's studies reflected in the works [25, 96-165].

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to highlight the stages that describe the processes of management development not only in the 20th, but also in the 21st centuries (including the forecast period until the 2040s).

Research methodology and technique

During the research, the main approaches were used to describe the processes of management development - phase, school and conceptual, which in the evolutionary development of management concepts were reflected in the works of Andreeva V.I. [17], Afonichkina I.A. [81], S.I. Ashmarina. [74], Baldina IV, Yasnikova G.E. [73], Blake RR, Mouton DS. [21], Balashova A.P. [18], Basovsky L.E. [19], Blinova A. O., Ugryumovoy N. V. [20], Borodushko I. V., Lukashevich V. V. [80], Verdiyeva Yu.N. [27], Vesnina V.R. [28], Vikhanskiy O.S., Naumova A.I. [30], Volodko V.F. [31], Voropaeva S.N., Ermokhina V.D. [32], Gaponenko A.L., Pankrukhina A.P. [166], Glukhova V.V. [38], Goncharova V.I. [39], Dafta R. [41], Danko T.P., Golubeva M.P. [40], Dashkova I.A., Tkachenko I.V., Zakharchenko N.S. [42], Egorshina A.P. [43], Zinovieva V.N., Zinovieva I.V. [53], Zuba A.T. [54], Ignatieva A.V., Maksimtsova M.M., Komarova M.A. [75], Kaznachevskaya G.B. [55], Klykova M. S., Spiridonova E. S., Rukina M. D. [60], Korotkova E. M. [62], Korgovoy M.A. [61], Kostina V.A., Kostina T.V. [63], Kruglovoy N.Yu. [54], Ksenofontova Kh.Z. [65], Kuznetsova Yu.V. [72], Litvina Yu.I., Litvina I.Yu., Kharisova R.R. [68], Mazura I.I. [33], Mardasa A. N., Gulyaeva O. A. [69], Maslova E.L. [70], Mintzberg G. [77], Mikhnenko PA [78], Mescona M, Alberta M., Khedouri F. [76], Petrova A.N. [82], Popova V.N., Kas'yanova V.S. [84], Reznik S.D., Igoshina I.A. [86], Repina E.A. [87], Semenova A.K., Nabokova V.I. [95], Tebekina A.V., Kasaeva B.S. [142] and other authors.

The development of management in human society naturally proceeded from empirical results of action to scientifically based decisions.

Modern management science (management) originated in the late 19th - early 20th centuries and is characterized by a whole range of scientific schools and concepts.
In the scientific literature, there is a fairly large number of options for describing schools and concepts of management development and the processes of their evolution.
It should be noted that practically all the authors describe the evolution of the concepts of international management as described above in the 20th century.

Key research findings

Studies have shown that many authors limit themselves to considering the scientific, process, systemic and situational approaches in management (Table 1) [163], explaining that these approaches, complementing each other, ensure the development of modern management at all phases of the cycles of economic activity of socio-economic systems (enterprises, industries, complexes) [156]: rise, peak, decline, crisis, for example, large (technological) cycles of economic activity N. Kondratyev, medium (construction) cycles of economic activity S. Kuznets, small (business) cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar, short (business cycles) of economic activity of J. Kitchin et al. [153].

Table 1

Phases of management development based on a scientific, functional, systemic and situational approach

Name of approach

Characteristic features of the approach

Cycle phase

1

Scientific approach to management development

Based on the following basic provisions.
First, science and technology are considered as the main factors in the economic development of the state, industries and individual companies.
Secondly, the implementation of scientific research and development work (R&D) is considered as the main factor in the development of the production potential of enterprises, industries and complexes. That is, scientific and technological development is considered the locomotive of socio-economic development in general.
Thirdly, the management of development processes based on the use of statistical factor models (correlation and regression analysis), standardization of labor intensity, material and capital intensity of research, development work, experimental and batch production, operation, repair and after-sales service of products, etc.

Growth of economic activity of business entities

2

Functional approach to management development

Based on:
- firstly, on the rational division of labor in the organization;
- secondly, on specialization in the organization of management functions;
- thirdly, on the use of technologies of economic and mathematical modeling in management of both innovative and routine processes;
- fourthly, on the use of network planning methods and optimization models in business management.

Maximum economic activity of business entities

3

System approach to management development

Assumes:
- first, the consideration of the enterprise as a complex organizational system, consisting of many interrelated elements;
- secondly, taking into account the factors of the external competitive environment and the internal organizational management scheme that affect the development of the business processes of the enterprise;
- thirdly, the search and implementation of technologies for the rational management of an enterprise as a system.

The decline in economic activity of business entities

4

Situational approach

Assumes:
- firstly, the systematization of the most probable options for the implementation of both routine and innovative processes at the enterprise;
- secondly, the analysis of external and internal factors that determine the success of certain innovative and (or) routine decisions at the enterprise;
- thirdly, the development of management decisions, optimal (rational) for the implementation of both innovative and routine tasks in a particular situation.

Minimum economic activity of business entities
 

 

The specified 4-phase approach to the description of the development processes of modern management (Table 1) is the most widespread and most often found in the well-known literary sources [140].

The 4-phase approach to the description of modern management development processes served as the basis for the development of a 5-phase approach to the description of modern management development processes.

Paying tribute to the universality of the 4-phase approach to describing the development processes of modern management, nevertheless, a 5-phase approach to describing the processes of modern management development was proposed (Table 2) [156].

Table 2

The proposed 5-phase approach to describing the development processes of modern management

Phase name

Phase characteristic

1

Crisis phase

Management tools are aimed at overcoming the economic crisis with minimal costs

2

Phase of the beginning of economic activity growth

Management tools are aimed at finding ways of the fastest development

3

Phase of approaching the peak of economic activity

Through the use of selected management tools, the highest rates of development are ensured

4

Phase of the onset of a recession in economic activity

Management tools aim to localize costs through the use of well-proven standardized approaches to management

5

The phase of approaching the economic crisis

Management tools are simultaneously aimed at localizing all types of costs, and at determining rational ways to overcome the crisis, and at finding promising ways out of the crisis

 

The proposed 5-phase approach to describing the processes of development of modern management allows us to describe the dynamics of the change in the phases of development of management by taking into account small (business) cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar with an average duration of 10 years within the framework of large (technological) cycles of economic activity of N. Kondratyev with an average lasting 50 years, which predetermined the accounting in the model of 5 phases of the development of the technological order [140].

Thus, the proposed 5-phase approach to describing the processes of development of modern management involves a cyclical change of the following phases: the phase of the crisis, the phase of the beginning of the growth of economic activity, the phase of approaching the peak of economic activity, the phase of the beginning of the decline in economic activity, the phase of approaching the economic crisis.

As a logical rationale for the proposed 5-phase approach to describing the processes of development of modern management, the description of the change of small (business) cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar with an average duration of 10 years (within which the concepts and basic provisions of management schools are formed) in within the framework of large (technological) cycles of economic activity of N. Kondratyev with an average duration of 50 years, reflecting a change in technological orders, accompanied by a significant change in the content (but not principles) of approaches to management [140].

The conducted studies of the phase approach to describing the processes of management development made it possible to move on to research within the framework of the phased approach to describing the processes of management development in the XX-XXI centuries, covering the processes of school development and management concepts.

Despite the fact that some authors, not without reason, consider the phase approach to describing the processes of modern management development as universal, other authors also reasonably consider a wider palette of approaches to management development based on the study of management schools.

Management schools quite fully characterize the composition of significant factors of their development, under the influence of which they were formed. The basic list of management schools traditionally includes: the school of scientific management, the school of administrative (classical) management, the school of human relations, the school of behavioral sciences, the school of management science (also called quantitative). Moreover, most often in the well-known descriptions, the five schools of management mentioned cover the period from the 1900s to the 1950s (Table 3) [163].

Table 3

Classification of basic management schools that developed from the 1900s to the 1950s

Names of management schools

Time period

1

School of Science Management

1900s

2

School of administrative (classical) management

1920s

3

School of Human Relations

1930s

4

School of Behavioral Sciences

1930s

5

School of Management Science (Quantitative School of Management)

1950s

 

Thus, the objective flaw in the approach to describing management development processes in the form of basic management schools, presented in Table 3, lies in the statement that the development of approaches to management in the middle of the twentieth century allegedly ended, while objectively this is not the case - management how management science continues to evolve.

Although the very fact of the recognition of the management schools presented in Table 3 as the basic basis for their development is not in doubt.

Another group of authors studying the processes of management development, along with the basic schools of management (including: the school of scientific management, the school of administrative management, the school of human relations, the school of behavioral sciences and the school of the quantitative approach to management), presented in Table 2, additionally highlight: empirical school of management, school of social systems, school of human resource management. This extended classification of management schools covers, in most of the well-known descriptions, a more significant (compared to basic management schools) time interval - the period from the 1880s to the 1960s.

It is this extended classification of eight schools of management, the characteristics of which are presented in Table 4, that is considered to date by most authors studying the development of approaches to management as the most complete [98].

Table 4

Accepted as a complete classification of schools of management formed in the period from the 1880s to the 1960s

School name

Period

1

School of Scientific Management

1885-1920s

2

Administrative (classical) school of management

1920-1950s

3

School of Human Relations

1930-1950s

4

School of Behavioral Sciences

1930-1950s

5

Empirical School of Management

1940-1950s

6

School of Quantitative Approach to Management Since

1950s

7

School of Social Systems

1950-1960s

8

School of Human Resource Management

1960s


            Paying tribute to the currently accepted as the most complete classification of management schools that formed in the period from the 1880s to the 1960s, presented in Table 4, but not considering it exhaustive, the classification of modern management schools, extended to the present time, was proposed covering the period from the 1880s to the 2020s (Table 5).

Table 5

Proposed extended to the present classification of modern schools of management covering the period from 1880s to 2020s

The name of the school of management and the period of its formation

The main ideas of the school of management

Features of the application of the provisions of the school of management

The most prominent representatives of the school of management

1

School of Science Management,
1880-1920s

The school of scientific management is based on the assertion that laws, approaches, techniques, mechanisms and rules obtained in exact and natural science disciplines can be successfully used in the practice of enterprise management through the implementation of a system of scientific organization of labor, including scientific approaches:
- to the selection and training of personnel;
- to study the content of the required labor technologies and teach them to employees;
- to ensure the specialization of work performance;
- to the implementation of staff motivation;
- to the rational distribution of duties and responsibilities between employees (performers) and management personnel (managers) [14].

Scientific study and improvement on this basis of the content and organization of labor implementation processes by the personnel of the enterprise through the use in management of scientific methods borrowed from other areas of knowledge, which led to the achievement of the following important practical results:
- to the important conclusion that the work of managing people in an organization is a certain specialty that requires special training;
- the organization as a whole will benefit if each group of employees is focused on performing the work that it knows how to do best, and is committed (motivated) to perform this work [96].

M. Weber, G. Gantt, F. & L. Gilbert, G. Grant, O.A. Ermansky, F. Taylor, G. Ford, G. Emerson and others.
 

2

School of administrative (classical) management, 1920-1950

It is based on the search for systemic approaches to improving the efficiency of enterprise management through rational administration without attracting additional resources from outside [118].

Formulated universal management principles aimed at achieving the success of the organization, including:
- rational division of labor,
- competent distribution of powers and responsibilities,
- strict adherence to labor discipline,
- ensuring the unity of achieving goals,
- ensuring the unity of efforts of the entire team of the company through the achievement of harmony of interests of the personnel (employees) and the organization as a whole (including the interests of the owners),
- ensuring the unity of actions of employees of the organization,
- subordination of private (personal and group) interests to the general (interests of the organization),
- implementation of competent management,
- implementation of the principle of fair remuneration of personnel,
- reasonable centralization of management,
- ensuring the continuity of reaching the control chain through effective communications,
- providing
order of activity,
- observance of fairness in implementation
established rules and agreements at all levels of government,
- ensuring the stability of personnel (in terms of quantitative and qualitative composition, continuity, etc.),
- encouragement (and not condemnation) of the initiative of the staff [122]

A. Gastev, A. Ginsburg, D. Mooney, A. Sloan, L. Urvik, A. Fayol and others.
 

3

School of Human Relations Management, 1930-1950s.

It confirms the need to focus management processes on the social needs of personnel, which often prevail over material needs, and allows employees of the organization (in case of successful implementation of the management provisions prescribed by this
school):
- to feel their own individuality (value as a specialist) in the organization through relationships with other people;
- to neutralize the development of social relationships in the organization of the possible loss of job attractiveness as a result of the development of industrialization or the onset of a recession in the economy;
- to get the opportunity to show a greater response to the social influence of a group of colleagues, against the background of incentives by means of control from the side of management;
- to give a stronger response to the orders of the manager who meets the social needs of the employee [98].

Aims at improving the efficiency of the organization through the use of knowledge about interpersonal relationships and their constructive management in the interests of the organization. The founders of the school argued that when considering management as a method of management that ensures the performance of work with the help of other people, it should be borne in mind that relationships in the team are no less (and sometimes more significant) value than material incentives for employees [137].

E. Mayo, M.P. Follett et al.

 

4

School of Behavioral Sciences, 1930-1950s.

It is based on the study of the processes of social interaction of employees in the company, on the study of motivation, power, leadership and authority, the type of organizational structures, communications, quality management, the influence of the level of working life, etc. on the efficiency of functioning of a controlled socio-economic system (enterprises, organizations, etc.) [98].

The provisions of the School of Behavioral Sciences are aimed at helping an employee of the organization to realize his own capabilities, on the one hand, and at achieving high efficiency of the enterprise by ensuring the effectiveness of the used capabilities of personnel, on the other hand [117].
 

K. Arjiris, F. Herzberg, R. Likert, D. McGregor, A. Maslow and others.
 

5

Empirical School of Management, 1940-1950s.

Aimed at collection of the best practical approaches to managing the organization, allocated empirically and on this basis, the creation of management recommendations for managers. Thus,
the accumulation of the best positive experience in managing organizations ensures its implementation and consolidation in the practice of managing an organization [98].

The empirical school of management proceeds from the fact that at the stages of macroeconomic growth one should carefully analyze and timely consolidate the positive experience of managing organizations [106].

E. Dale, R. Davis, P. Drucker, D. Miller, L. Newman, E. Peterson, E. Plowman, G. Simon, A. Chandl and others.
 

6

School of quantitative approach to management, since 1950s.

Based on the use of achievements in the management of organizations in the following areas:
A) development of cybernetics and theory of operations research;
B) application of mathematical models in management;
C) development of quantitative methods used in the development of management decisions;
D) the formed apparatus of the exact sciences, introduced into the organization's management systems [83].

The school of a quantitative approach to management has been developed through the use of quantitative methods for making management decisions. The use of these methods became possible thanks to the introduction of mathematical models into the management practice and the
apparatus of exact sciences [161].

R. Ackoff, L. Bertalanffy, S. Beer, A. Goldberger, N. Djordgescu-Regan, R. Kalman, L. Klein, R. Luce, E. Rife, S. Simon, M.
Sasieni, S. Forrestre, D. Fosrester, et al.

 

7

School of Social Systems,
1950-1960s

It is largely based on the achievements of the school of "human relations" and, developing them, considers the employee as a person with social needs (along with material needs), which are reflected in the search for opportunities for their implementation in the organization. The organizational environment, in turn, also affects the formation of the needs of the employees of the enterprise (company) [144].

Using a complex of social aspirations of employees in the interests of the development of the organization can significantly increase the efficiency of its functioning [98].
 

I. Anosov, C. Barnard, J. March. R. Cyert, G. Simon, F. Selznick, A. Etzioni and others.

8

School of Human Resource Management, 1960s.

It implies considering personnel as the main reserve of development and the main source of economic growth. The postulates of this school of management are based on the assertion that to improve the efficiency of the organization requires not only building up human resources, but also ensuring the most effective use of it in the interests of the organization [133].

Focuses on
satisfaction of the needs of personnel, considered through the ratio of the outcome of the personal interest of each employee in the best results of social labor, a particle of which is his personal result [98].

M. Beer, D. Guest, M.A. Devanne, J. Douglas, S.
Klein, P. Lawrence, R. Miles, D.C. Mills, A. Pettigrew, C. Sisson, B. Spector, J. Storey, N.M. Teachy, R. Walton,
C. Fombrun, D. Hunt, K. Hendry,
E. Stein and others.

9

School of staff motivation,
1950-1990s

It is based on determining the options for the most effective solution to the task of managing the organization's activities based on the characteristics of personnel management based on the formation of a socio-psychological chain of events in them: "need - motive - incentive - goal - action", which determines the actions of individual employees, groups of employees and the organization's team in the whole [98].
 

It assumes a complex use of the main provisions of the groups of theories of personnel motivation, including: meaningful theories of personnel motivation (link "motive - incentive"), motivational theories of forming a favorable "field (atmosphere of activity)" for personnel (link "incentive - goal"); process theories of personnel motivation (link "goal - action") [130].

J. Adams,
K. Alderfer,
D. Atkinson,
P. Bourdieu,
D. Bowen,
V. Vroom,
F. Herzberg,
A. Gorz,
J. Cole,
K. Levin,
E. Locke,
E. Lawler,
K. Madsen,
D. McGregor,
D. McKelland,
P. Martin,
A. Maslow,
S. Richie,
V. Skinner,
F. Taylor,
W. Ouchi,
L. Porter,
R. Frey,
E. Fromm and others.

10

School of Strategic Management and Marketing, 1970-2000s.

Based on development
theory of strategic management as the main
a tool for effective market development of the organization and ensuring
its high competitiveness, as well as on developments in theory
marketing, allowing you to analyze the internal and external (market) environment, study behavior
consumers, form marketing communications and carry out strategic marketing management [98].

The family of schools of strategic management and marketing includes groups of prediscriminating, describing and integrating schools defined by G. Mintsberog [149]
A) The group of preparatory schools includes: 1) School of Design (K. Andrews, A. Chandler etc.) [172];
2) School of planning (I. Ansoff, P. Lorange, etc.);
3) School of positioning (M. Porter, R. Katz, B. James, J. Quinn, etc.);
B) Group
describing schools include:
1) School of Entrepreneurship (J. Schumpeter and others);
2) Cognitive school (G. Simon and others);
3) School of education (C. Lindblom; J. Quinn, etc.)
4) The School of Power (R. Kyert, J. March, G. Allison, etc.);
5) School of Culture (E. Pettigfew, S. Feldman, J. Barney, M. Fersiroth, F. Rieger, etc.);
6) School of the external environment (M. Mescon, C. Oliver, J. Freeman, M. Hann, W. Astley, etc.);
C) The group of integrating schools includes:
1) The School of Configuration (R. Miles, A. Miller, P. Handavalla, P. Friesen and others) [77]

I. Ansoff, B. James, P. Lorange, D.S. Lvov, R. Katz, F. Kotler, J. Quinn, G. Mintzberg, M. Porter, A. Chandler, K. Enrus and others.

11

School of Management on the basis of information technology, from 1980 to the present (2020s)

Based on the use of information technology in solving problems of management of an organization as one of the four main freedoms that ensure the processes of integration and globalization in the system of economic development, and effectively implement the main management functions, including: marketing, analysis, forecasting, planning, organization, current management, coordination, control, adjustment, motivation, etc. [56]

Provides for the use of information management technologies as technologies that implement the processes of using a set of methods and tools implementation of operations of collection, registration, transfer, accumulation and processing of information on the basis of software and hardware for solving management problems of the development of socio-economic systems (enterprises, industries, complexes, etc.) by building and implementing information management systems [ 126].

Bell D., Castells M., McLuhan M., Masouda E., Machlup F., Naisbitt J., Stoner T., Tebekin A.V., Toffler E., Eburdin P. et al.

 

By proposing an expanded classification of modern management schools covering the period from the 1880s to the 2020s, presented in Table 5, the authors hope that it will serve as a foundation for further description of management schools [98] that will be formed in the 21st century.

The reliance on the phase approach to the description of the processes of development of modern management, as well as the periodization of management schools made it possible to proceed to the development of a classification of management concepts of the XX-XXI centuries.

It should be noted that the currently most widespread management concepts actually repeat in content the classical management schools. This applies, first of all, to such generally recognized management concepts as [140]:

- the concept of scientific management;

- the concept of administrative management;

- the concept of management from the standpoint of psychology and human relations;

- the concept of management from the standpoint of the science of behavior.

The author's conceptual approach to the study of the dynamics of management development processes differs from the most common phase approach (Table 1) and the approach based on management schools (Table 3, 4), in addition to improving both of these approaches (Table 2 and Table 5), and also known conceptual approaches, the following provisions related to the development of management concepts [134].

First, the phased approach to the development of management in itself, demonstrating the natural cyclical nature of economic development, does not give an idea of ​​the evolution of management processes developing in a spiral.

Secondly, the approach to describing management development processes with the help of management schools does not properly demonstrate the continuity of the stages of economic development characteristic of the phase approach.

Thirdly, the formation and development of management schools did not end in the middle of the twentieth century (see Table 3.4), and continues to this day.

Fourth, each of the management concepts (based on one or another school of management) dominates in a certain period of time, determined by the influence of a set of socio-economic factors that form the cycles of economic development [144].

In accordance with these ideas, and taking into account the previously conducted research [111, 126], the stages of development of management concepts in the period from the 1900s to the 2030s were described (Table 6) [111].

Table 6

The results of the systematization of the concepts of modern management, replacing each other with a frequency of 10-year business cycles in the period from the 1900s to the 2030s

The period of the formation of the management concept

Name of the management concept

The main idea of ​​the management concept

1900s

The concept of scientific management [131]

Based on the transfer of scientific knowledge from other areas of activity, and argues that the exact laws, rules, principles, methods and approaches used in natural science, technology and other areas can be effectively used in management practices

1910s

The development of the concept of scientific management [96]

Based on the transfer of scientific knowledge from other areas of activity, and claims that the exact laws, rules, principles, methods and approaches used in natural science, technical sphere and in other areas can be effectively used in the practice of managing organizations and allow you to increase the efficiency of continuous production in the organization, implementation and control

1920s

The concept of administrative management [157]

Asserts that improving the functioning of an organization as a closed (independent, isolated) system can be ensured through internal rationalization of activities without the use of additional resources attracted from the external environment, which is especially important in conditions of resource scarcity. That is, increasing the efficiency of the organization is based on technologies for searching and using internal reserves due to rational administration.

1930s

The concept of management from the standpoint of psychology and human relations [121]

Asserts that the basis for the growth of labor productivity of workers is the methods of managing interpersonal relations aimed at increasing employee satisfaction with the results of their work, which are no less effective than material incentives, on the one hand, and ensure the efficiency of the organization as a whole, on the other hand.

1940s

Concept empirical or pragmatic approach to management [106]

Without denying the importance of theoretical principles of management is based on the accumulation of practical experience of effective management, its fixation and implementation of the best models (schemes) of management in practice

1950s

The concept of a systems approach to management [151]

Considers an organization as a system consisting of a set of interdependent elements that are focused on achieving goals in a changing environment, and rationally adapting to the changes taking place in it.

1960s

The concept of a behavioral approach to management [158]

Considers activities aimed at achieving the goals of the organization, not as an emergency process that must be used when the situation is already out of control, but as a series of sequential, cyclically repeating, interrelated actions - functions management (marketing, planning, organization, control, motivation, etc.) that form the management process as a certain line of behavior.

1970s

The concept of a situational approach to management [120]

Asserts that the suitability of various methods of managing an organization is determined in crisis market conditions by the current situation for a controlled system: a specific set of circumstances that affect the functioning of an organization at a given time. The abundance during this period of changes in factors in the companies themselves and in their environment leads to the fact that there is no single and invariably "optimal" way of management for all organizations. The most effective from the point of view of managing a specific organization at the current time is the management method that is most appropriate (suitable) in the given situation of this organization.

1980s

The concept of management culture [159]

Assumes that in conditions of high market competition with an approximate equality of consumer properties and prices for the same type of goods from different manufacturers (companies), a high management culture that combines: a culture of relationships is of great importance for effective management of an organization with clients, intra-company culture and inter-company culture (relationships with contractors, competitors, government bodies, public organizations, etc.).

1990s

The concept of an innovative approach to management [150]

Asserts that in the conditions of growth of economic activity of economic entities, an effective way of managing an organization is to focus on innovation, on the constant updating of continuously obsolete products and production technologies, as well as on the implementation of adequate marketing, organizational and other innovative.

2000s

The concept of management by goals [155]

Assumes that in the context of globalization of the economy and the integration of the world economic space, effective management of an organization (a company, a transnational corporation) will be associated with the transformation of the organization's global goal to the level of a specific performance level, adequate to the competencies provided and performed functions.

2010s

The concept of management on the basis of information technology [111]

Asserts that those companies that quickly and efficiently introduce the latest information technologies into the practice of managing an organization will receive a competitive advantage in the market over other companies that are less effective in implementing information technologies

2020s

The concept of a combinatorial approach to management [132]

Asserts that in the transition from the fifth to the sixth technological order, the best (rational) technologies for managing an organization will be based on the combined use of management technologies inherent in the fifth and sixth technological order, respectively

2030s

The concept of management based on the use of human capital [108]

It is expected that in the 2030s after the global economy exited the crisis of the 2020s, ensuring the rapid growth of business entities will be based on the management of the effective development of the organization's human capital, including: knowledge , skills, talents and abilities of people.

 

Thus, the results presented in Table 6 are the results of the systematization of the concepts of modern management, covering the period from the 1900s to the 2030s (including predictive estimates of the concepts of management development in the 2020s and 2030s [25,101]), replacing each other from frequency of 10-year business cycles of Clemente Zhuglyar seem to be the most complete today.

The reliance on the phase approach to the description of the processes of development of modern management, as well as the periodization of management schools made it possible to proceed to the development of a classification of management concepts of the XX-XXI centuries.

The results of studies of the phase and stage approaches to the description of management development processes made it possible to proceed to the formation of a conceptual-phase approach to the description of management development processes in the XIX-XXI centuries.

The results of systematization on the basis of research of management concepts tied to small cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar, and changing within large cycles of economic activity (EA) N.D. Kondratyev, characterizing technological orders (TO), determining the formation of a conceptual-phase approach to the description of management development processes in the XIX-XXI centuries, are given in Table 7 [156].

Table 7

Results of systematization of management concepts tied to small cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar and changing within large cycles of economic activity (EA) N.D. Kondratyev characterizing technological orders (TO)

 

 

Large cycles of economic activity N. D. Kondratyev and the corresponding technological orders (TO)

1870-1920s - third TO

1920-1970s. - fourth TO

1970-2020s. - the fifth TO

2020-2070s. - sixth TO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phases of TO, ​​determined by small cycles of economic activity K. Zhuglyar

 

Crisis corresponding to the area of ​​minimum EA

1870s. The beginning of the formation of the concept of scientific management [134]

1920s. Management administrative Concept [157,160]
 

 

1970s The concept of a situational approach to management [120,142]

2020s. The concept of a combinatorial approach to control [132,160]

The beginning of the rise of EA

1880s. Formation of the main provisions of the concept of scientific management [134]

1930s. The concept of management from the standpoint of psychology and human relations [117,121]

1980s. The concept of management culture [113,159]

2030s. The concept of management based on the use of human capital [25,108]

Approaching the peak of EA

1890s. Completion of the formation of the concept of scientific management [134]

1940s. Concept
empirical or pragmatic management [105,106]

1990s. The concept of an innovative approach to management [115, 150]
 

2040s. The concept of management based on the use of human capital [145,156]

The beginning of the EA decline after the peak

1900s. Implementation of the concept of scientific management [96,138]

1950s. The concept of a systematic approach to management [109,151]

2000s. The concept of management by objectives [155,164]

?

The rapid decline in EA as the crisis approaches

1910s. Development of the concept of scientific management [96,139]

1960s. The concept of a behavioral approach to management [126,158]

2010s. A management concept based on information technology [127,134]

?

 

Thus, Table 7 presents a periodic table of management development concepts tied to small cycles of economic activity by K. Zhuglyar, and changing within the framework of large cycles of economic activity by N.D. Kondratyev characterizing technological structures that determine the formed conceptual-phase approach to the description of management development processes in the XIX-XXI centuries.

Conclusions

1. This paper presents the results of research by the authors:

- phase approach to the description of management development processes;

- a staged approach to the description of management development processes in the XX-XXI centuries (schools and concepts);

- a conceptual approach to describing management development processes in the XX-XXI centuries.

2. On the basis of the research carried out, a conceptual-phase approach to the description of management development processes in the XIX-XXI centuries is proposed.

3. In the study of the phase approach to the description of management development processes, a 4-phase approach to the description of the development of management concepts based on the scientific, functional, systemic and situational approach was taken as a basis.

4. The scientific approach corresponding to the growth phase in the cycle of macroeconomic activity is based on the following provisions:

- firstly, science and technology are considered as the main factors of the economic development of the state;

- secondly, the implementation of research and development work is considered as the main factor in the development of the production potential of the enterprise;

- thirdly, management of development processes based on the use of statistical factor models, standardization of labor intensity, material and capital intensity of research, development work and serial production is considered as the basic basis of management within projects.

5. The functional approach, corresponding to the peak phase in the cycle of macroeconomic activity, is based on the following provisions:

- firstly, on the rational division of labor in the organization;

- secondly, on the specialization of management functions in the organization;

- thirdly, on the use of technologies for economic and mathematical modeling of innovative and routine processes;

- fourthly, on the use of network planning methods and optimization models in the implementation of economic activities.

6. The systematic approach, corresponding to the recession phase in the cycle of macroeconomic activity, is based on the following provisions:

- firstly, considering the enterprise as a complex organizational system, consisting of interconnected elements;

- secondly, taking into account the factors of external competitive and internal organizational environments that affect the development of business processes;

- thirdly, the rational management of the enterprise as a system.

7. The situational approach, corresponding to the crisis phase in the cycle of macroeconomic activity, is based on the following provisions:

- first, the systematization of the most probable options for the implementation of innovative processes;

- secondly, the analysis of external and internal factors that determine the success of certain innovations;

- thirdly, the development of management decisions that are optimal for the implementation of innovative and routine tasks in a particular situation.

8. Paying tribute to the versatility of the 4-phase approach to describing the development processes of modern management, a 5-phase approach to describing the processes of modern management development was proposed. This approach allows us to describe the change in management concepts corresponding to small cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar with an average duration of 10 years, regularly repeating their features within the framework of large cycles of economic activity of N. Kondratyev with an average duration of 50 years.

9. The proposed 5-phase approach to the description of modern management development processes involves a cyclical change of the following phases of macroeconomic activity:

- the phase of the crisis, in which management tools are aimed at overcoming the economic crisis with minimal costs;

- the phase of the beginning of the growth of economic activity, when management tools are aimed at finding ways of the most rapid development;

- the phase of approaching the peak of economic activity, when the highest rates of development are ensured through the use of selected management tools;

- the phase of the beginning of the recession in economic activity, when management tools are aimed at localizing costs through the use of well-proven standardized approaches to management;

- the phase of approaching the economic crisis, in which management tools are simultaneously aimed at localizing all types of costs, and at determining rational ways to overcome the crisis, and at finding promising ways out of the crisis.

10. In the study of a staged approach to describing the processes of management development in the XX-XXI centuries (schools and management concepts), the classification of management schools was taken as a basis; the period from the 1880s to the 1960s is covered, which is considered to be the most complete and includes:

- School of Scientific Management, 1885-1920;

- Administrative (classical) school of scientific management, 1920-1950;

- The school of human relations, 1930-1950;

- School of behavioral sciences, 1930-1950;

- The empirical school of management, 1940-1950s;

- School of quantitative approach to management, since 1950;

- School of social systems, 1950-1960s;

- School of Human Resource Management, 1960s.

11. Apart from the classification of modern schools of management, covering the period from the 1880s to the 1960s, and which is considered to be the most complete and exhaustive today, the classification of modern schools of management, extended to date, was proposed, which additionally included:

- School of staff motivation, 1950-1990s;

- School of strategic management and marketing, 1970-2000s;

- School of management based on information technology, from 1980 to the present.

12. Another author's approach to the study of the dynamics of management development differs from the most common phase approach and approach based on management schools, in addition to improving both of these approaches (Fig. 2 and Table 4), also by the following provisions concerning the development of management concepts.

First, the development of management concepts did not end in the middle of the twentieth century, and continues to this day.

Secondly, each of the management concepts dominates in a certain period of time, determined by the influence of a set of socio-economic factors.

In accordance with these ideas, and taking into account previous studies, the stages of development of management concepts in the period from the 1900s to the 2030s were described, including:

- the concept of scientific management, 1900s,

- development of the concept of scientific management, 1910s,
- the concept of administrative management, 1920s,

- the concept of management from the standpoint of psychology and human relations, 1930s,

- the concept of an empirical or pragmatic approach to management, 1940s,

- the concept of a systems approach to management, 1950s,

- the concept of a behavioral approach to management, 1960s,

- the concept of a situational approach to management, 1970s,

- the concept of management culture, 1980s,

- the concept of an innovative approach to management, 1990s,

- the concept of management by goals, 2000s,

- the concept of management based on information technology, 2010s,

- the concept of a combinatorial approach to management, 2020s,

- the concept of management based on the use of human capital, 2030s.

13. Thus, the presented results of the systematization of the concepts of modern management, replacing each other with the frequency of 10-year business cycles of K. Zhuglyar in the period from the 1900s to the 2030s (including predictive estimates of the concepts of management development in the 2020s and 2030s -ies) are by far the most complete.

14. The results of systematization on the basis of research of management concepts tied to small cycles of economic activity of K. Zhuglyar, and changing within the framework of large cycles of economic activity (EA) N.D. Kondratyev, characterizing technological orders (TU), made it possible to form a conceptual-phase approach to the description of management development processes in the XIX-XXI centuries.

15. Despite the fact that the authors have carried out a fairly large amount of research devoted to the study of approaches to the description of management development processes in the XIX-XXI centuries, the authors do not consider them as exhaustive, and believe that there are still many unexplored issues in these aspects of management development.

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96. Тебекин А.В. Анализ влияния школы научного управления на развитие менеджмента: многоаспектный подход. // Стратегии бизнеса. 2019. № 1 (57). С. 13-23.

97. Тебекин А.В. Анализ кризисов с позиций экономической теории. // Журнал экономических исследований. 2018. Т. 4. № 12. С. 3-9.

98. Тебекин А.В. Анализ особенностей развития школ менеджмента. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2019. Т. 5. № 4. С. 13-28.

99. Тебекин А.В. Вопросы методологии организации процесса управления социально-экономическими системами. // Транспортное дело России. 2019. № 4. С. 56-60.

100. Тебекин А.В. Выделение классов методов принятия управленческих решений в условиях антикризисного управления. // Вестник Тверского государственного университета. Серия: Экономика и управление. 2019. № 2 (46). С. 304-319.

101. Тебекин А.В. Закономерности и современные тенденции развития мирового хозяйства: прогнозы экономической активности и перспективы менеджмента. Инновации и инвестиции. 2012. № 3. С. 156-159.

102. Тебекин А.В. Закономерности и тенденции развития предпринимательства в первой половине ХХ века. // Финансовая экономика. 2014. № 3. С. 39-46.

103. Тебекин А.В. Закономерности и тенденции развития предпринимательства во второй половине ХХ века. // Научное обозрение. Серия 1: Экономика и право. 2014. № 3. С. 105-117.

104. Тебекин А.В. Инновационный менеджмент. Учебник для бакалавров / Москва, 2017. Сер. 58 Бакалавр. Академический курс (2-е изд., пер. и доп.).

105. Тебекин А.В. Исследование подходов к описанию процессов развития менеджмента в XX-XXI веках. Научная монография. - М.: Русайнс. - 2019. – 114 с.

106. Тебекин А.В. История развития менеджмента как науки в 1940-е годы и ее значение для решения современных проблем управления. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 8. С. 1-8.

107. Тебекин А.В. К вопросу о выделении научных школ менеджмента. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 12. С. 32-40.

108. Тебекин А.В. К вопросу о формировании концепции менеджмента 2030-х гг. // Вестник Московского финансово-юридического университета. 2019. № 2. С. 168-176.

109. Тебекин А.В. Концепция системного подхода к управлению как базовая основа для развития современного менеджмента. // Стратегии бизнеса. 2018. № 8 (52). С. 12-16.

110. Тебекин А.В. Логистика. Москва, 2017.

111. Тебекин А.В. Менеджмент организации. Учебник / Москва, 2008.

112. Тебекин А.В. Менеджмент организации: основы формирования стратегии и выбора направления развития. // Вестник Московского университета им. С.Ю. Витте. Серия 1: Экономика и управление. 2015. № 2 (13). С. 78-89.

113. Тебекин А.В. Менеджмент. Учебник / Москва, 2015. Сер. Бакалавриат.

114. Тебекин А.В. Методы принятия управленческих решений. Учебник / Москва, 2019. Сер. 58 Бакалавр. Академический курс (1-е изд.)

115. Тебекин А.В. Модель удовлетворенности потребителя Н. Кано как основа развития концепции инновационного подхода к управлению в 1990-е годы. // Стратегии бизнеса. 2019. № 7 (63). С. 21-27.

116. Тебекин А.В. Общенаучные методы принятия управленческих решений. Монография / Москва, 2019.

117. Тебекин А.В. Опыт школы поведенческих наук в свете современных проблем экономической и организационной психологии. // В сборнике: Актуальные проблемы развития экономики в современных условиях. материалы международной научно-практической конференции. 2018. С. 548-553.

118. Тебекин А.В. Предпосылки формирования концепции менеджмента 2030-х годов. В сборнике: Тенденции и перспективы развития социотехнической среды Материалы IV международной научно-практической конференции. Ответственный редактор И.Л. Сурат. 2018. С. 648-654.

119. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Егорова А.А. Выбор подхода к формированию стратегии, обеспечивающей выход из глобального социально-экономического кризиса 2020 года. // Теоретическая экономика. №5, 2020, стр.44-67.

120. Тебекин А.В. Развитие концепций менеджмента в 1970-е годы. // Журнал исторических исследований. 2018. Т. 3. № 4. С. 33-43.

121. Тебекин А.В. Развитие прикладных направлений менеджмента в 1930-е годы и его значение для современной экономики. Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 7. С. 58-67.

122. Тебекин А.В. Роль школы административного (классического) управления в развитии современного менеджмента. Вестник Московского финансово-юридического университета. 2018. № 2. С. 169-177.

123. Тебекин А.В. Роль школы научного менеджмента в развитии современного менеджмента. // Журнал исторических исследований. 2018. Т. 3. № 1. С. 48-56.

124. Тебекин А.В. Современный менеджмент: основные направления развития. // Вестник Московского университета им. С.Ю. Витте. Серия 1: Экономика и управление. 2015. № 1 (12). С. 85-91.

125. Тебекин А.В. Стратегический менеджмент. Учебник / Москва, 2017. Сер. 68 Профессиональное образование (2-е изд., пер. и доп.).

126. Тебекин А.В. Теория менеджмента. – М.: Кнорус, 2016. - 696с.

127. Тебекин А.В. Теория управления. Учебник – М.: Кнорус, 2017. — 342 с.

128. Тебекин А.В. Трехмерная матричная модель управления организацией. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2020. Т. 6. № 3. С. 64-76.

129. Тебекин А.В. Управление качеством. Учебник / Москва, 2017. Сер. 61 Бакалавр и магистр. Академический курс (2-е изд., пер. и доп.).

130. Тебекин А.В. Управление персоналом: учебник. Издание 2-е. – М.: КноРус, 2016. – 624с.

131. Тебекин А.В. Условия и факторы возникновения и развития менеджмента как науки управления. Журнал исследований по управлению. 2016. Т. 2. № 3. С. 1.

132. Тебекин А.В. Формирование концепции управления (менеджмента) 2020-х годов. // Академический вестник Ростовского филиала Российской таможенной академии. 2018. № 1 (30). С. 64-68.

133. Тебекин А.В. Школа менеджмента человеческих ресурсов как базовая основа для развития стратегий современного бизнеса. // Стратегии бизнеса. 2018. № 9. С. 3-7.

134. Тебекин А.В. Эволюция концепций менеджмента организации. В сборнике: Актуальные проблемы развития экономики в современных условиях. Материалы международной научно-практической конференции. 2018. С. 423-429.

135. Тебекин А.В., Вайтенков Я.В. Анализ методов оценки эффективности управления производством в части анализа и оценки рисков. Вестник Московского университета им. С.Ю. Витте. Серия 1: Экономика и управление. 2016. № 3 (18). С. 56-66.

136. Тебекин А.В., Денисова И.В. Объективные предпосылки возникновения и развития менеджмента как современной управленческой науки. В сборнике: Наука и практика: интеграция знаний материалы международной научно-практической конференции. НОУ ВО "Московский экономический институт". 2015. С. 85-91.

137. Тебекин А.В., Денисова И.В., Тебекин П.А. Влияние научной школы человеческих отношений на развитие современного менеджмента. Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 5. С. 1-8.

138. Тебекин А.В., Денисова И.В., Тебекин П.А. История развития менеджмента в 1900-е годы. // Журнал исторических исследований. Том2, №4. С.1-8.

139. Тебекин А.В., Денисова И.В., Тебекин П.А. История развития менеджмента в 1910-е годы. // Журнал исторических исследований. 2018. Т. 3. № 3. С. 15-23.

140. Тебекин А.В., Егорова А.А. Анализ подходов к описанию процессов развития современного менеджмента. // Стратегии бизнеса. 2019. № 8 (64). С. 17-23.

141. Тебекин А.В., Егорова А.А. Диалектические основы общенаучных методов управления в менеджменте. // Журнал философских исследований. 2019. Т. 5. № 1. С. 10-27.

142. Тебекин А.В., Касаев Б.С. Менеджмент организации. Учебник / А.В. Тебекин, Б.С. Касаев. Москва, 2014.

143. Тебекин А.В., Конотопов М.В., Сметанин С.И. Экономическая история. Учебник для бакалавров / Москва, 2019. Сер. 58 Бакалавр. Академический курс (12-е изд.)

144. Тебекин А.В., Мантусов В.Б. Управление организацией: теоретико-методологические основы, функциональные задачи, технологии, прикладные аспекты применения. Монография. - Москва, 2016.

145. Тебекин А.В., Петров В.С. Анализ процессов трансформации основных положений эффективного менеджмента при движении общества от индустриальной к постиндустриальной экономике. // Стратегии бизнеса. 2018. № 12 (56). С. 3-12.

146. Тебекин А.В., Петров В.С. Изменение роли промышленных технологий при смене технологических укладов. В книге: Экономика и управление: вызовы инновационного развития материалы Всероссийской научно-практической конференции. Челябинский Многопрофильный Институт. 2016. С. 75-76.

147. Тебекин А.В., Серяков Г.Н. Прогнозные оценки динамики ВВП с учетом циклических изменений экономической активности (на примере Республики Беларусь). // Транспортное дело России. 2019. № 1. С. 63-66.

148. Тебекин А.В., Серяков Г.Н. Теоретико-методические основы исследования технологических укладов экономики. // Москва, 2017.

149. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А. Влияние школ стратегического менеджмента и маркетинга на современное развитие подходов к управлению. // Вестник Московского финансово-юридического университета. 2019. № 3. С. 14-23.

150. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А. Развитие менеджмента организации как науки, искусства и практики управления в 1990-е годы. // Журнал исторических исследований. 2019. № 3.

151. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А. Развитие прикладных направлений менеджмента в 1950-е годы и их влияние на развитие современного менеджмента. // Транспортное дело России. 2019. № 5. С. 84-86.

152. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А. Управление качеством. Учебное пособие / Москва, 2016. Сер. 68 Профессиональное образование (1-е изд.). – 223 с.

153. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Егорова А.А. Динамика развития прикладных направлений менеджмента. // Транспортное дело России, №4, 2019. С. 11-16.

154. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Егорова А.А. Концепции управления персоналом, получившие развитие в 1990-е годы и их влияние на развитие современного менеджмента. // Журнал исторических исследований. 2019. Т. 4. № 3. С. 52-59.

155. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Егорова А.А. Развитие концепции менеджмента в 2000-е годы и перспективы их использования в современных кризисных условиях. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2020. Т. 6. № 2. С. 3-15.

156. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Егорова А.А. Фазовый подход к описанию процессов развития менеджмента в XX-XXI веках. // Транспортное дело России. 2020. № 1. С. 87-96.

157. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Тебекина А.А. Значение опыта развития менеджмента на основе концепции административного управления для современного этапа развития экономики. Журнал экономических исследований. 2018. Т. 4. № 7. С. 12-30.

158. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Тебекина А.А. Концепция поведенческого подхода к управлению как базовая основа для развития менеджмента в 1960-е годы и ее значение для развития современных методов управления. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 10. С. 30-39.

159. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Тебекина А.А. Развитие концепций менеджмента в 1980-е годы. // Журнал исторических исследований. 2019. Т. 4. № 1. С. 14-22.

160. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Тебекина А.А. Сравнительная характеристика прикладных направлений менеджмента в 1920-е годы и 2020-е годы и ее значение для развития современной экономики. // Транспортное дело России. 2018. № 5. С. 90-92.

161. Тебекин А.В., Тебекин П.А., Тебекина А.А. Школа количественного подхода к управлению и возможности использования ее положений для развития современного менеджмента. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 8. С. 52-61.

162. Тебекин А.В., Тебекина А.А. Динамика демаркации естественно-научной (научно-технической) и гуманитарной (политической и административной) культур в управлении развитием общества. // Маркетинг и логистика. 2017. № 3 (11). С. 108-116.

163. Тебекин А.В., Тебекина А.А. Развитие концепций инновационного менеджмента. // Журнал исследований по управлению. 2018. Т. 4. № 2. С. 9-31.

164. Тебекин А.В., Филатов А.А. Основы менеджмента организации. Москва, ВНИИТИ, 2005. -383с.

165. Тебекин А.В., Шафиров В.Г. Характеристика тайм-менеджмента как эффективной подсистемы управления социально-экономическими системами. // Журнал социологических исследований. 2018. Т. 3. № 1. С. 33-47.

166. Теория управления. Под общей редакцией: А. Л. Гапоненко, А. П. Панкрухина. – М.: Издательство РАГС, 2010. – 557 с.

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168. Форд Генри // Большая советская энциклопедия: [в 30 т.] / под ред. А. М. Прохоров — 3-е изд. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1969.

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170. Шумпетер Й.А. Теория экономического развития. Капитализм, социализм и демократия. /Пер. с нем. В.С. Автономов, М.С. Любский, А.Ю. Чепуренко. – М.: Эксмо, 2008.

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