PROBLEMS OF THE PC1 MAGNETOSPHERIC WAVE THEORY. A REVIEW
Рубрики: REVIEWS
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The Pc1 ultralow-frequency electromagnetic waves (frequency range 0.2–5 Hz), also known as pearl necklace, are a unique phenomenon in near-Earth space physics. Many properties of pearls remain a mystery, despite the research of prominent cosmophysicists for more than half a century. In the proposed review, we briefly outline the main points of the so-called standard model, which is widely used to interpret Pc1. Next, we focus on the criticism of the standard model and on the identification of open problems in the Pc1 theory. The general conclusion is that it is necessary to develop new ideas outside the framework of the standard model in order to understand the processes of excitation and propagation of Pc1 waves in Earth’s magnetosphere.

Ключевые слова:
ultralow-frequency electromagnetic waves, radiation belt, ion-cyclotron resonator, self-excitation mode
Текст
Текст произведения (PDF): Читать Скачать
Список литературы

1. Andronov A.A., Fabrikant A.L. Landau damping, wind waves and whistle. Nelinejnye volny [Non-Linear Waves]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, pp. 68–104. (In Russian).

2. Bespalov P.A., Trakhtengertz V.Yu. Alvenovskiye mazery [Alfven Masers]. Gorky, IPPh AS USSR, 1986, 190 p. (In Russian).

3. Cornwall J.M. Cyclotron instabilities and electromagnetic emission in the ultralow frequency and very low frequency ranges. J. Geophys. Res. 1965, vol. 70, pp. 61–69.

4. Demekhov A.G. Recent progress in understanding Pc1 pearl formation. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1609–1622. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.01.014.

5. Feygin F.Z., Kurchashov Yu.P. A quasilinear dynamics of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations (Pearls). J. of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity. 1975, vol. 26, pp. 539–548.

6. Feygin F.Z., Yakimenko V.L. The mechanism of generation and development of “pearls” under the cyclotron instability of the outer proton zone. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya [Geomagnetism and Aeronomy]. 1969, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 700–705. (In Russian).

7. Feygin F.Z., Yakimenko V.L. On the fine structure of micropulsations of the Pc1 type. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiya [Geomagnetism and Aeronomy]. 1970, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 558–560. (In Russian).

8. Ginzburg V.L. Rasprostranenie elektromagnitnykh voln v plazme [Propagation of electromagnetic waves in plasma]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1967, 684 p. (In Russian).

9. Gradshtein I.S., Ryzhik I.M. Table of integrals, series, and products. New York, Academic Press, 1965, 1086 p.

10. Guglielmi A.V. Cyclotron instability of the outer radiation belt of the Earth under conditions of self-modulation of growing waves. JETP Lett. 1971, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 85–88. (In Russian).

11. Guglielmi A.V. MGD-volny v okolozemnoi plazme [MHD Waves in the Near-Earth Plasma]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1979, 139 p. (In Russian).

12. Guglielmi A.V. Ultralow-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth’s crust and magnetosphere. Physics-Uspekhi. 2007, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 1197–1216.

13. Guglielmi A.V. Nonlinearity of geoelectromagnetic waves. Geofizicheskie issledovaniya [Geophys. Res.]. 2008, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 16–24. (In Russian).

14. Guglielmi A.V., Pokhotelov O.A. Geoelectromagnetic Waves. IOP Publ. Ltd. Bristol and Philadelphia, 1996, 402 p.

15. Guglielmi A.V., Potapov A.S. The effect of heavy ions on the spectrum of oscillations of the magnetosphere. Cosmic Res. 2012, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 263–271. DOI: 10.1134/S0010952512040016.

16. Guglielmi A.V., Troitskaya V.A. Geomagnitnye pulsatsii i diagnostika magnitosfery [Geomagnetic pulsations and diagnostics of the magnetosphere]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, 208 p. (In Russian).

17. Guglielmi A., Potapov A., Russell C. The ion cyclotron resonator. JETP Lett. 2000, vol. 72, pp. 432–435.

18. Guglielmi A., Kangas J., Potapov A. Quasi-periodic modulation of the Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations: An unsettled problem. J. Geophys. Res. 2001, vol. 106, no. A11, pp. 25847–25856.

19. Kangas J., Guglielmi A., Pokhotelov O. Morphology and physics of short-period magnetic pulsations (A Review). Space Sci. Rev. 1998, vol. 83, pp. 435–512.

20. Kangas J., Fraser B., Potapov A. Pc1 pearl waves: Discovery, morphology and physics. Preface. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1599. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.06.004

21. Klimushkin D.Yu., Mager P.N., Marilovtseva O.S. Parallel structure of Pc1 ULF oscillations in multi-ion magnetospheric plasma at finite ion gyrofrequency. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2010, vol. 72, pp. 1327–1332. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2010.09.019.

22. Kurazhkovskaya N.A., Klain B.I., Dovbnya B.V. Patterns of simultaneous observations of high-latitude magnetic impulses (MIEs) and impulsive bursts in the Pc1–2 band. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1680–1689. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2006.12.003.

23. Landau L.D., Lifshitz E.M. Gidrodinamika [Hydrodynamics]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988, 733 p. (In Russian).

24. Lifshitz E.M., Pitaevskii L.P. Physical Kinetics. Course of Theoretical Physics, vol. 10 (1 ed.). Oxford: Pergamon, 1981, 453 p.

25. Mikhailova O.S. The spatial structure of ULF-waves in the equatorial resonator localized at the plasmapause with the admixture of the heavy ions. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2014, vol. 108, pp. 10–16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2013.12.007.

26. Mursula K. Satellite observations of Pc1 pearl waves: The changing paradigm. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1623–1634. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.02.013.

27. Nekrasov A.K., Feygin F.Z. Ponderomotive force of ion cyclotron waves in the Pc1 frequency range with magnetosonic dispersion. Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth. 2018, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 741–748.

28. Nishida A. Geomagnetic Diagnosis of the Magnetosphere. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1978, 2013, 256 p.

29. Paulson K.W., Smith C.W., Lessard M.R., Engebretson M.J., Torbert R.B., Kletzing C.A. In situ observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations by the Van Allen Probes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2014, vol. 41, pp. 1823–1829. DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059187.

30. Paulson K.W., Smith C.W., Lessard M.R., Torbert R.B., Kletzing C.A., Wygant J.R. In situ statistical observations of Pc1 pearl pulsations and unstructured EMIC waves by the Van Allen Probes. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 2017, vol. 122, pp. 105–119. DOI: 10.1002/2016JA023160.

31. Raita T., Kultima J. Discovery of the pearl waves by Eyvind Sucksdorff. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1600–1603. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.01.013.

32. Sucksdorff E. Occurences of rapid micropulsations at Sodankylä during 1932 to 1935. Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. 1936, vol. 41, pp. 337–344.

33. Tagirov V.R., Trakhtengertz V.Yu., Chernous S.A. On the nature of aurora pulsing spots. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiia [Geomagnetism and Aeronomy]. 1986, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 600–604. (In Russian).

34. Tepley L. Regular oscillations near 1 c/s observed simultaneously at middle and low latitudes. Radio Sci. 1965, vol. 69D, pp. 1089–1105.

35. Trakhtengertz V.Yu., Demekhov A.G. Cosmic cyclotron masers. Priroda [Nature]. 2002, no. 4, pp. 25–31. (In Russian).

36. Trakhtengertz V.Yu., Tagirov V.R., Chernous S.A. A flow- through cyclotron maser and pulsed VLF emission. Geomagnetizm i aeronomiia [Geomagnetism and Aeronomy]. 1986, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 99–106. (In Russian).

37. Troitskaya V.A. Classification of rapid pulsations of the magnetic field and earth currents. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. 1964, vol. 4, p. 490–491.

38. Troitskaya V.A., Guglielmi A.V. Geomagnetic micropulsations and diagnostics of the magnetosphere. Space Sci. Rev. 1967, vol. 7, no. 5/6, pp. 689–769.

39. Yahnin A.G., Yahnina T.A. Energetic proton precipitation related to ion-cyclotron waves. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1690–1706. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.02.010.

40. Yanagihara K. Geomagnetic micropulsations with periods from 0.03 to 10 seconds in auroral zones with special reference to conjugate-point studies. J. Geophys. Res. 1963, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 3383–3397.

41. Zolotukhina N., Cao J. Transformation of structured Pc1 into IPDP-like emission under enhanced magnetospheric convection: A case study. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 1668–1679. DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2007.01.016.