Отражение гендерной идентичности иранских женщин в традиционном и современном образе жизни
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
Цель статьи – представить отражение гендерной идентичности в образе жизни иранских женщин. Автор основывается на концепции Джудит Батлер о гендерной перформативности, основанной на том, что повторение действий создает искусственные конструкты гендера, которые, в свою очередь, приживаются. Автор стремится раскрыть следы гендерной идентичности через стиль жизни путем сравнения традиционного и современного образа жизни, при этом исследуя, каким образом дискурс создал образ иранской женщины и как через повторение действий или отказ от повторения они сохраняют или изменяют гендерную идентичность. Автор приходит к заключению, что иранки, представляющие как традиционный, так и современный стиль жизни, действуют в соответствии с гендерными условностями, а гендерным определителем выступает женственность.

Ключевые слова:
гендерная идентичность, коммуникация, социализация, стиль жизни, традиционный, современный, иранские женщины.
Текст

Introduction
«The consequence of such sharp disagreements about the meaning of gender... establishes the need for a radical re-thinking of the categories of identity within the context of relations of radical gender asymmetry» [3, p. 11]. Women’s experience of marginalization proves the significance of studying women’s gender identity and a «radical re-thinking» of it. The issue seems far more relevant in case of Iranian women’s gender identity who are experiencing a transitional stage. The country, facing global modernization, with its Traditional discourse, especially after revolution of 1979, insists maintaining traditional norms. The challenge of Iranian women to sustain or alter her gender identity can be examined in
the way she lives her everyday life. The paper uses Butler’s ideas on construction of gender identity. Judith Butler (1956), like other poststructuralist feministы, rejects the existence of any essence to decide one’s gender. Furthermore, she undermines the feminist distinction between sex and gender. She argues that sex, like gender, is also a cultural construct and scientific ground that masks and naturalizes the phallocentric discourse. Sex cannot be differentiated from gender, because like gender, it is divided into two categories and each gender is following its related sex, or else it will be punished. According to Butler, gender is created by performativity; that is, gender is a «doing rather than a being» [3, p. 25]. Gender is «an identity tenuously constituted in time – an identity instituted through a stylized repetition of acts» [3, p. 392]. The repetition of so called gender acts creates gender and makes us believe in the naturalness and real essence of these artificial conventions established by discourse. However, Butler claims that «there is no point of resistance to regulation» [6, p. 151]. While the subject is constructed within discourse, she has agency to violate and reconstruct the discourse. «The subject is neither fully determined by power, nor fully determining of power» [5, p. 17]. The subject who is within the power relations draws her agency from the very construction «to articulate its opposition» [4, p. 122]. Gender is not «constructed as a stable identity» [3, p. 191], rather «the possibility of gender transformation are in the possibility of failure to repeat» [3, p. 192]. Lifestyle displaying actions and behaviors is regarded here as the visible image of the identity. According to Butler, «The effect of gender…must be understood as the mundane way in which bodily gestures, movements and styles of various kinds constitute the illusion of an abiding gendered self» [3, p. 191]. The present study seeks to represent the way gender identity regulates Iranian women’s lifestyle.

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