Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The paper presents the results of a study of the possibility of implementing an effective and physically correct stochastic ray tracing in gradient media based on the Runge-Kutta method. For implementation in the photorealistic rendering system, the specifics of the ray tracing method in complex three-dimensional scenes were considered. One of the main features of ray tracing in geometrically complex scenes is the large volume of geometric primitives that need to be tested for the intersection of the ray segment with the primitives. A method of ray propagation in voxel space of the scene is proposed. The method allows significant speeding up the process of searching for ray intersections with geometry primitives. To implement these ray tracing features the special program interface for gradient media was proposed, which can become the basic interface for a media of all types. Methods for calculating the luminance of all lighting components in gradient media were considered. The results of modeling the propagation of rays and image synthesis in a fiber with a refractive index gradient are presented.

ray tracing, gradient medium, Runge-Kutta method, rendering, photon maps
Publication text (PDF): Read Download

1. Max Born and Emil Wolf, Principles of Optics. Pergamon Press, Fourth edition, 1970.

2. Handbook of optics / sponsored by the Optical Society of America; Michael Bass, editor in chief. - 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill , Inc., 1995, ch.9.

3. R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics, University of California Press, 1966, pp.182-195.

4. D. T Moore, "Gradient-Index Optics: A Review," Appl. Opt. 19, 1038-1035 (1980)

5. E. W. Marchand, [Gradient Index Optics], Academic Press, New York, NY, (1978).

6. Applied Digital Optics: From Micro-optics to Nanophotonics Bernard C. Kress and Patrick Meyrueis 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

7. Sawyer D. Campbell, Jogender Nagar, Donovan E. Brocker, John A. Easum, Jeremiah P. Turpin, Douglas H. Werner, "Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP," Proc. SPIE 9822, 98220P (17 May 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2223040

8. Kajiya, James T. (1986), "The rendering equation" (PDF), Siggraph 1986: 143–150, doi: 10.1145/15922.15902

9. Jensen H.W. (1996) Global Illumination using Photon Maps. In: Rendering Techniques ’96. Eurographics, pp. 21–30. Springer, Vienna.

10. Vincent Pegoraro, [Handbook of Digital Image Synthesis: Scientific Foundations of Rendering], CRC Press, 2017

11. Kang, C., Wang, L., Xu, Y. et al. A survey of photon mapping state-of-the-art research and future challenges. Frontiers Inf Technol Electronic Eng 17, 185-199 (2016).

12. Georgiev, I., Krivanek, J., Slusallek, P.: Bidirectional light transport with vertex merging. In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2011, pp. 27:1-27:2, ACM, New York, NY, USA (2011).

13. Hybrid Light Simulation Software Lumicept // URL: (date of call 10.03.2020)

Login or Create
* Forgot password?