New barley products can be developed by modifying the content of bioactive components in the grain through breeding, as well as improving its quality at lower fertilizer costs. We aimed to study the effects of the genotype, growth conditions, and top-dressing application of nitrogen and organo-mineral fertilizers on the chemical composition of barley grain. The barley varieties Novichok, Rodnik Prikamya, and Pamyaty Rodinoy were grown under normal (2020) and dry (2021) field conditions. The plants were top-dressed with mineral (CAS; SpetsKhimAgro, Kirovo-Chepetsk, Russia) or organo-mineral (Amino Start and Alfastim; Polydon® Agro, Moscow, Russia) fertilizers in the tillering or heading phases. The contents of protein, starch, fat, and crude fiber in the grain were analyzed with an INFRAMATIC 8620 instrument (Perten Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). The CAS fertilizer reduced protein, fat, and fiber by 4.5–8.3% (Novichok) during the drought and increased starch by 2.1% (Novichok), fiber by 14.2% (Rodnik Prikamya), and fat by 18.9% (Pamyaty Rodinoy) under normal humidity. Amino Start applied under normal conditions increased starch by 2.9% and reduced protein and fat by 7.8–8.9% in Rodnik Prikamya, as well as increased protein and fat by 14.4 and 6.3%, respectively, but reduced starch by 5.1% in Pamyaty Rodinoy. Alfastim applied under normal conditions reduced the content of protein by 10.7% (Rodnik Prikamya), but increased it by 3.6–7.2% in the other cultivars. It also increased fiber by 22.8% in Rodnik Prikamya, but decreased it by 18.6% in Pamyaty Rodinoy. Finally, this fertilizer decreased fat by 12.7% in Rodnik Prikamya, but increased it by 9.8% in Pamyaty Rodinoy. In the drought, the fertilizers Alfastim and Amino Start increased the protein content by 5.2–12.2% in Rodnik Prikamya and Pamyaty Rodinoy. Top-dressing barley plants with mineral or organo-mineral fertilizers can modify the grain composition (up to 10.4% of fiber, 3.6% of starch, and 7.5% of protein and fat), depending on the consumer’s requirements.
Hordeum vulgare, cultivar, protein, fiber, starch, fat, yield
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