To achieve the maximum dynamic range of solar radio images obtained using aperture synthesis in relatively wide frequency bands 0.1−0.5 % of the operating frequency, it is necessary to compensate the signal propagation delays in the antenna receive path before calculating visibility functions (hereinafter visibilities). When visibilities are corrected without delay compensation, the signal-to-noise ratio decreases due to residual phase slopes in the receiving system bandwidth. In addition to enhancing dynamic range, preliminary compensation for delays simplifies real-time imaging — no antenna gain calibration is required to get a first approximation image. The requirements for the accuracy of antenna placement are also reduced — in contrast to the measurement of the phase visibility error, the measurement of the delay is actually not so critical to the antenna position errors that are larger than the operating wavelength. The instantaneous frequency band of the Siberian Radioheliograph, which determines the minimum step for measuring the phase slope, and hence the accuracy of determining the delay, is 10 MHz. At the speed of light in an optical fiber of ~0.7c, a step of 10 MHz makes it possible to unambiguously measure the difference between electrical lengths of cables up to 20 m and to correct antenna positions by radio observations, even if the error in the position of the antennas exceeds the operating wavelength. Correction of the band phase slopes during the observation time adapts the radio telescope to the temperature drift of delays and decreases antenna gain phase spread. This, in turn, leads to more stable solutions to systems of equations containing antenna gains as unknowns.
radio telescope, aperture synthesis, radio image
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