LASERS AND SAFETY. YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW. PART 3
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Various aspects of a current state in the field of laser safety in Russia and abroad have been considered. A review of the main normative documents in the field of laser safety and laser dosimetry has been carried out. The necessity in audit of domestic system of laser safety for its modernization purpose has been caused first of all by a considerable expansion of laser products’ scopes. Besides, a problem of counteraction by standard and legal way to so-called "laser hooliganism" which is expressed in unauthorized radiation of aircrafts’ pilots and vehicles’ drivers by laser bunches of powerful laser target indicators called in use as "laser pointers" is very actual now. Control methods related to safe application of the laser products intended for work on open spaces aren´t regulated in the existing system of laser safety, as well as there are no objective criteria for assessment of such products’ laser radiation danger degree to the health of human beings which have got to laser bunches’ distribution field. Respectively, there are considerable difficulties in justification of these or those legal sanctions application against "laser hooligans". Due to the beginning of development of Customs Union’s technical regulations on laser production safety it is necessary to carry out a modernization of existing state standard specifications (GOSTs) in a part of reflection at them a modern level of laser equipment development and accounting of Russia’s Federal Laws No. 184 and No. 52 requirements. A new system of standards on laser safety under a general name "SSBT. Lasers and Laser Setups (Systems). Laser Safety" has been offered. It is supposed to include in this system besides the upgraded GOST SSBT 12.1.040, some more documents in the rank of Russia’s national standards and rules on metrology. Compliance of design standards to the international and regional (European) standards, and also to national standards of the USA has been considered. The need of improvement related to methods of state regulation in the laser safety area has been justified. Overcoming of a situation of a legal collision in the body of law related to laser safety is offered by development of Customs Union’s laser production safety technical regulations harmonized with the Customs Union’s interstate sanitary and hygienic legal document ESGT – 2010 and the Russian sanitary standards with simultaneous restriction related to a standardization area of translated standards on laser safety based on the MEK standards of the IEC 60825 series that have been put into operation in 2009–2014. The scope of these standards has to be limited only to laser production intended for export.

Keywords:
laser safety, laser radiation, danger degree, technical regulations, legal collision, standard, control, supervision, open space.
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Окончание. Начало см.: Безопасность в техносфере. 2014, № 4. С. 72–87 (Часть 1), DOI: 10.12737/5308; №5. С. 47–57 (Часть 2), DOI: 10.12737/6024.

3. Совершенствование системы государственного регулирования безопасного использования лазерной продукции

Результатом исследования проблемы биологического действия лазерного излучения и нормирования предельно-допустимых уровней (ПДУ) лазерного излучения стала разработка у нас в стране и за рубежом целостной системы мероприятий, обеспечивающих безопасное для людей использование лазерной техники. Первые попытки системного подхода к вопросам лазерной безопасности были предприняты в США еще в конце 1960-х – 1970-х годах. В 1969 г. вышло «Руководство по единым промышленным правилам или техническим условиям гигиены для лазерных установок», разработанное ACGIH. В 1976 г. в США это «Руководство» заменено на новый нормативный документ: «A Guide for Control of Laser Hazards» (ACGIH, 1976) [68] (далее ACGIH-76).

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