LASERS AND SAFETY. YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW. PART 2
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Second part of the analytical review focuses on issues of laser emission biological effect and principles of its rationing. Readers are briefed on results of researches of laser emission impact on animals and humans. Common mechanisms of biological effect of laser emission are considered along with characteristics of its effect on eyes, skin and the general condition of a person. Key regulatory documents for laser safety are reviewed. Legal collision in Russian and EurAsEC regulatory base for laser safety system is analyzed. Enhancement of methods of State and statutory regulation of laser safety is proven to be essential.

Keywords:
laser emission, laser technology, laser safety, biological effect, regulatory documents, standards, technical regulations, state regulation.
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Продолжение. Начало см.: Безопасность в техносфере. 2014. № 4. С. 72–87. DOI: 10.12737/5308.

1. Биологическое действие лазерного излучения

С начала 1960-х годов в США и СССР проводились работы по исследованию результатов воздействия лазерного излучения на организм животных и человека, разрабатывались математические модели механизмов действия лазерного излучения на биологические структуры. Уже в первых работах в этой области [27–30], появившиеся сразу после публикации статей Меймана и Джавана [8–10], показано, что лазерное излучение (ЛИ) является крайне опасным гомогенным фактором окружающей человека среды обитания. Это потребовало в дальнейшем проведения исследований и разработок в области нормирования и защиты от ЛИ, результаты которых легли в основу создания системы лазерной безопасности (ЛБ).

В 1966 г. в СССР опубликована работа Б. В. Леонова и В. В. Шиходырова «Лазеры и клетка», в которой впервые рассматривались механизмы действия ЛИ на биологические структуры [31]. В 1968 г. опубликована книга С.Файна и Э.Клейна «Биологическое действие излучения лазера» (перевод с английского) [32], в которой обобщены результаты медико-биологических исследований, проведенных в США в 1961–1965 гг. В нашей стране эта книга стала первой обзорной публикацией по вопросу воздействия ЛИ на организм человека. В 1969 г. появилась брошюра «Излучение лазеров. Защита от их неблагоприятного действия» (авторы — Петров И. Р., Бутман А. Б., Жохов В. П. и др.), в которой рассматривались вопросы биологического действия ЛИ (БДЛИ) [33].

В последующие годы были опубликованы работы, в которых рассматривались вопросы БДЛИ [34–49]. Современный взгляд на проблему БДЛИ изложен в [50]. Далее мы будем преимущественно использовать эту публикацию.

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