EXTINGUISHING FOREST FLAMMABLE MATERIALS WITH HYDROGELS BASED ON ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Tushenie lesnyh pozharov imeet ryad osobennostey pered tusheniem pozharov v promyshlennyh i zhilyh zdaniyah. Oni zaklyuchayutsya v sostave i stroenii lesnyh goryuchih materialov, sposobstvuyuschih obrazovaniyu mnogochislennyh ochagov tleniya i bolee nizkom znachenii pozharnoy nagruzki (3-5 raz) dlya lesnyh pozharov po sravneniyu s tehnogennymi. Eto nakladyvaet ogranicheniya kak na tehnologiyu tusheniya pozhara, tak i na oborudovanie ispol'zuemoe pri tushenii i privodit k neopravdanno vysokomu rashodu vody na tushenie, a takzhe neobhodimosti vvedeniya dopolnitel'nyh operaciy okaraulivaniya i dotushivaniya, chto otvlekaet sily i sredstva tusheniya pozharov ot svoey glavnoy zadachi. V dannoy rabote rassmotren vopros povysheniya effektivnosti tusheniya lesnyh goryuchih materialov s ispol'zovaniem v kachestve ognetushaschego veschestva – gidrogelya, poluchennogo na osnove gidroksida alyuminiya. Issledovaniya ognetushaschey sposobnosti vybrannyh ognetushaschih sostavov provodili po special'noy metodike imitiruyuschey gorenie lesnyh goryuchih materialov. Registraciya effektivnosti ognetusheniya osuschestvlyalas' nablyudeniem chetyreh parametrov: obschego massovogo rashoda ognetushaschego sostava na tushenie, vremya prekrascheniya plamennogo goreniya pri tushenii, kolichestvo operaciy tusheniya, obschee vremya tusheniya pozhara. Issledovana ognetushaschaya sposobnost' rastvorov s razlichnoy koncentraciey gidrogelya na osnove gidroksida alyuminiya v sravnenii s ognetushaschey sposobnost'yu vody. Pokazano, chto nailuchshey ognetushaschey sposobnost'yu obladaet gidrogel' s koncentraciey 52-126 gr./15 kg vody. Krome etogo, dlya sravneniya ognetushaschey sposobnosti gidrogelya primenyali rastvory kal'cinirovannoy sody i sul'fata natriya v vode, kak komponentov ognetushaschego sostava. Ser'eznogo vklada v ognetushenie eti komponenty ne vkladyvayut, poetomu ognetushaschiy effekt polnost'yu obuslovlen gidrogelem na osnove gidroksida alyuminiya. Na osnovanii poluchennyh dannyh opredelen rashod rastvora gidrogelya na osnove gidroksida alyuminiya v sravnenii s vodoy, i naimen'shaya ego koncentraciya, sohranyayuschaya ognetushaschiy effekt, predlozhen veroyatnyy mehanizm ognetushaschego deystviya gidrogelya

Keywords:
lesnye pozhary, stepnye pozhary, nizovye pozhary, tushenie pozharov, gidrogel'
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