ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF SURFACE WATERS USING REUSABLE SOLID-PHASE POLYMER INDICATORS IN THE FIELD ENVIRONMENT
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
As a result of many years of economic activity, a large number of anthropogenic factors arise that change the dynamics of the transformation of the quality of surface waters. The growing deterioration in their quality is due to the long-term impact of various pollution sources (industrial production, road transport, agriculture, technogenic deposits, heat power facilities, oil and gas pipelines, etc.). However, a wide range of heavy metals enters the surface waters, along with the increase in macrocomponents during technogenic dispersion of toxicants. This requires a systemic evaluation of surface water. Modern methods are based on the use of devices that have been used up, recyclable or disposable paper sets with a perceptible range of error in the determination. In this paper, for the rapid analysis of the state of surface waters on the presence of heavy metals, solid-state polymer indicators were used. The possibility of non-laboratory application in practice of color solid-state polymeric indicators of reusable use, preserving shades of color for two years or more, is shown. Characteristics of indicators were studied in laboratory conditions and tested in the study of lake and river water in several Russian regions (Lake Valday, Polomet River, Onego Lake, etc.). The developed methodology is based on the testimony of four parameters: temperature, pH; The changed color of the polymer indicator, followed by a comparison of pH and color with the indicator’s reference scale; Of the total index of water pollution by heavy metals. Comparing the results with the indicators of the working scale, in which all four indicators are included, the estimation of the level of contamination by heavy metals of surface waters with high accuracy is carried out. In addition, this method makes it possible to establish the significant role of bottom sediments in the formation of surface water quality. The results of the carried out research make it possible to increase the number of observations in time and space and to obtain a significant amount of information base on the ecological state of water bodies during their monitoring.

Keywords:
color plastic indicators, heavymetals, surface water, monitoring.
Text

1. Введение
Поверхностные воды относятся к важным компонентам природной среды и содержат значительные запасы пресной воды (водохранилища, озерные системы, реки). В условиях интенсивной хозяйственной деятельности их загрязнение стало одной из актуальных экологических проблем [1–4].

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