SOLID-PHASE BIOSORBENTS FOR WATER PURIFICATION FROM PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
In the model solution of dodecane investigated sorbents with immobilized microbial cells genus Pseudomonas (K-5-25, A-2) and Rhodococcus (EriA. 2-4m). Sorbents based on non-woven fabrics made of polypropylene fibers (neutral) and the acrylonitrile fibers containing in their structure of the group of primary and secondary amines, as well as on natural material of the mineral from the group of hydrous layered structure. The efficiency of the sorption and biocatalytic contributions to the study of the degree of water purification. Such self-recovering system, combining physico-chemical and biological removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from solutions with low concentrations of trace and can operate in dynamic mode. Moreover, the sorbent performs one of the most important functions of biological systems, providing delivery and accumulation of oil components from the liquid phase, immobilized cells and carry out selfregeneration biosorbent. Analysis of the comparative effectiveness of these processes with the use of a kinetic model of the results obtained on the solid-phase sorbent with immobilized cells and the initial sorbent without cells, allowed us to determine the degree of physical and chemical removal of dodecane from an aqueous emulsion and the degree of biodegradation, as in liquid, and in solid phase sorption material. The most efficient biological system has shown itself on the basis of non-woven material acrylonitrile, allowing up to 8 days to reduce the concentration of dodecane to the level of maximum permissible concentration and below.

Keywords:
sorption, biodegradation, immobilized microbial cells, biosystems and kinetics.
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1. Introduction

Application of highly effective sorption technologies for producing high-purity water usually involves pretreatment of water to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) that causes loss of sorption activity due to blocking and “poisoning” of active  ionic centers of polymeric ion exchangers. One of the most economically efficient means of the removal of spilled oil from either land or sea is the use of sorbents (Walkup et al., 1969). Synthetic sorbents such as polypropylene and polyurethane are the most commonly used commercial sorbents in oil-spill cleanup due to their oleophilic and hydrophobic characteristics (Schatzberg, 1971).

Bio-catalytic methods of water purification from oil hydrocarbons using immobilized oil-oxidizing microorganisms can significantly increase treatment efficiency (Li et al., 2005), compared to using the active solid phase support only.

In general, biological treatment of environmental pollutants is preferred over physicochemical as the former is cost effective, efficient and environmentally friendly (Ojo, 2006).

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