The article considers the recent legislative changes that allow the extension of the notion of an obligation as a relative relationship. Based on judicial practice and the positions of well-known jurists, the author comes to the conclusion that an obligation does not only connect the debtor with the creditor, but also generates passive duty for all the subjects of law to refrain from creating obstacles to the creditor in the exercise of its subjective rights. Meanwhile a creditor has the right to protect subjective rights from violations not only on the part of the debtor but also on the part of any third party. However, in a number of statutory cases, the creditor may be denied the opportunity to refer to the obligation in relations with third parties. Such legal consequences occur, in particular, in case of non-fulfillment of legislative requirements on the necessity of state registration of the contract, and in case of violation of the rules of the notification on the pledge of movables. The author proposes to refer to legal significance of relative relationship for third parties as an absolute legal force of obligations.
Obligation, relative relationship, subjective right, pledge accounting, registration of the contract.
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