VORTEX TECHNOLOGY OF GASES STRATIFICATION FOR SOLVING ECOLOGICAL ISSUES OF OIL, GAS AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
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Abstract (English):
One of the important tasks of the Russian economy and ecology is development and realization of energy-saving technologies, allowing the most efficient use of both primary and secondary energy resources. In oil, gas and chemical industries, there are processes, in which the potential energy of pressure of hydrocarbon or waste gases is either lost, either recycled with minimum efficiency. The energy lost should be used for low-temperature purification of waste and prepared gases, thus reducing environmental pollution. One way to solve this problem is to develop a vortex technology based on the Rank-Hilsch effect. By efficiency this method of purification exceeds standard throttling systems. This review presents an analysis of both theoretical and technological aspects of research of the vortex effect. different constructions of vortex tube are considered along with the one of the important conditions of its operation and realization in the industry - regulation of the incoming flow. It is shown that the realization of the regenerative scheme with vortex tubes will improve ecological and economic indicators of the core technology. A critical review of existing theories of the Ranque-Hilsch effect is provided. The article reviews the prospects of development of shock-wave mechanism that allows to explain the excessive cooling capacity of triple-flow vortex tubes used for associated petroleum gas treatment.

Keywords:
vortex effect, ecology, gas purification, double-flow vortex tube, triple-flow vortex tube, vortex unit, cooling capacity, enthalpic balance, natural gas, associated gas, waste gas, air, condensate, shock-wave mechanism.
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1. Вихревая труба как устройство для терморазделения газов. Термодинамические параметры и геометрические соотношения

Эффект терморазделения (стратификации) газов был случайно открыт французским инженером Жоржем Жозефом Ранком, которому 12 декабря 1931 г. выдан патент № 743111 (вихревая труба). Парадоксальность открытия Ж. Ранка иллюстрируется тем, что его сообщение на заседании Французского физического общества было встречено с большим скепсисом, а опытные данные [1] объявлены ошибкой эксперимента.

Во время Второй мировой войны немецкий ученый Р. Хилш начал в Эрлангенском университете1 обстоятельное исследование вихревого эффекта, которое было опубликовано в Германии уже после войны [2]. Это положило начало широкому исследованию вихревого эффекта в США и СССР (1950-е годы), а далее практически во всех индустриально развитых странах мира. Так, к началу XXI в. было опубликовано более 2000 статей, монографий и патентов по данной тематике [3].

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1 Университет Эрлангена–Нюрнберга (Эрлангенский университет, Университет имени Фридриха–Александра в Эрлангене и Нюрнберге, нем. Friedrich-Alexander-Universität. Erlangen-Nürnberg) — университет в Германии.

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