ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOIL ALONG HIGHWAYS (NOVOSIBIRSK)
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
These studies were performed for the first time at the territory of Novosibirsk. Some of the methods have not been previously used in environmental assessment along the major highways. The approbation of these methods can make a certain contribution to the theory of bioindication and biological testing (including the data on the environmental identity of individual species of plants and soil photoautotrophs). Using biological methods has allowed to evaluate the effects of living systems’ exposure to chronic pollution by vehicles’ emissions, which is impossible to achieve with traditionally used physicochemical methods that determine the concentration of certain pollutants only at a given time in a given sample. in the soils of Novosibirsk were found: 63 species of soil algae and cyanobacteria belonging to 42 geniuses, 38 families, 19 orders of 7 classes, 4 groups. Changes of taxonomic and phytocenological organization algocyanobacterial groups can serve as indicators of the environmental conditions, in particular, they can diagnose the degree of stress. The article demonstrates the possibility of applying biological methods to estimate the ecological state of technospheric territories.

Keywords:
highways, environmental monitoring, bioindication, soils, soil algae, cyanobacteria, taxonomic organization, phytocenological organization.
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1. Введение

Значимость биологического разнообразия для биогеоценоза и биосферы в целом трудно переоценить. В 1992 г. в Рио-де-Жанейро на международной конференции по окружающей среде и развитию была принята Конвенция по биоразнообразию и устойчивому развитию. Её подписали180 стран, в том числе и Россия.

В связи с различного рода интенсивным антропогенным воздействием на естественные экосистемы их состояние катастрофически ухудшается [1]. Известно, что исчезновение видов или перевод их в статус редких и исчезающих видов, наряду с другими причинами, на 67% происходит в связи с нарушением экосистем, т.е. их естественной среды обитания. Разрушительное воздействие человека на биогеоценозы приводит не только к экологическим проблемам, но и к усилению социальной напряженности [2]. Не случайно проблеме восстановления нарушенных экосистем во всех странах придаётся большое значение.

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